Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 4

July 2013

Volume 7, Issue 4

Pages A25–A32, 453–604, L21–L43

  1. Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
      Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(4)/2013

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This is the schematic illustration of photonic crystal enhanced chemiluminescence intensity of the oxalate ester peroxide chemiluminescence system. The emission light is inhibited inside the photonic crystal and significantly enhanced at the surface owing to its Bragg scattering. When the stopband of the photonic crystal is matched with themaximum emission wavelength, the chemiluminescence intensity could be enhanced 44.9 times.

      (Picture: X. Shi et al.10.1002/lpor.201300031, pp. L39–L43, in this issue)

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
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      Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(4)/2013

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Traditional optical frequency comb based microwave photonic filters (OFC-based MPFs) are seriously restricted to be operated in “Nyquist zone” for varieties of spurious frequencies signals. In this article, a fairly simple and effectivemethod for spurious frequencies suppression is demonstrated. It has no effect on the filter characteristic, and enables the filter to be freely tuned. It would greatly propel theOFC-based MPFs' practical application.

      (Picture: J. Liao et al.10.1002/lpor.201300005, pp. L34–L38, in this issue)

  3. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
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      Issue Information: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(4)/2013

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370042

  4. Call for Papers

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    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
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    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
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      Call For Papers: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(4)/2013 (page A25)

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370043

  5. Editorial Advisory Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
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  6. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
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      Contents: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(4)/2013 (pages A27–A32)

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370045

  7. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
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    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
    1. Tip-based plasmonics: squeezing light with metallic nanoprobes (pages 453–477)

      Nathan C. Lindquist, Jincy Jose, Sudhir Cherukulappurath, Xiaoshu Chen, Timothy W. Johnson and Sang-Hyun Oh

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201209044

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      Nanofabricated metallic tips are at the core of important research in single-molecule imaging, near-field scanning optical microscopy, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, as well as potential commercial applications such as heat-assisted magnetic recording. While challenging to fabricate, much progress has been made towards the reliable production of extremely sharp (10 nm) metallic probes. In this review, we discuss the various factors that go into the design of metallic tips, their fabrication, packaging and system integration, characterization, passivation, and eventual use. Fabrication challenges, implementation issues, optical excitation schemes, and various current and emerging applications are also discussed. For the rapidly emerging fields of plasmonics and nanophotonics, the use of sharp metallic tips has generated significant scientific progress and will play an integral role well into the future.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Gearing up for optical microrobotics: micromanipulation and actuation of synthetic microstructures by optical forces (pages 478–494)

      Darwin Palima and Jesper Glückstad

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200030

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      Optics is usually integrated into robotics as part of intelligent vision systems. At the microscale, however, optical forces can cause significant acceleration and so optical trapping and optical manipulation can enable the noncontact actuation of microcomponents. Microbeads are ubiquitous optically actuated structures, from Ashkin's pioneering experiments with polystyrene beads to contemporary functionalized beads for biophotonics. However, micro- and nanofabrication technologies are yielding a host of novel synthetic structures that promise alternative functionalities and new exciting applications. Recent works on the actuation of synthetic microstructures using optical trapping and optical manipulation are examined in this review. Extending the optical actuation down to the nanoscale is also presented, which can involve either direct manipulation of nanostructures or structure-mediated approaches where the nanostructures form part of larger structures that are suitable for interfacing with diffraction-limited optical fields.

    3. Recent advances in ultrafast time-resolved chirality measurements: perspective and outlook (pages 495–505)

      Julia Meyer-Ilse, Denis Akimov and Benjamin Dietzek

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200065

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      Observing chirality changes as they occur is an important topic of research. It provides information that deepens the understanding of biomolecular configuration and conformation under environmental changes. Also, knowing the specific steps in chiral synthesis would simplify the production of specific chiral enantiomers that have a specific function. To gain better insight to the initial steps of conformational and configurational changes, the time-resolution of chiral spectroscopy is continually pushed toward a shorter time-scale. Recent advances have produced measurements of chirality changes with a femtosecond time-resolution. These measurements are hindered by the inherently weak chirality signal, which can be overshadowed by different optical artefacts. This minireview will look at the so far successful techniques which measure chirality changes with femtosecond time-resolution and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques. A short outlook will also look at new techniques that could improve the ability to measure chirality changes on an ultrafast time-scale.

    4. Integrated microwave photonics (pages 506–538)

      David Marpaung, Chris Roeloffzen, René Heideman, Arne Leinse, Salvador Sales and José Capmany

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200032

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      Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A particular aspect that recently gains significant interests is the use of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology in the MWP field for enhanced functionalities and robustness as well as the reduction of size, weight, cost and power consumption. This article reviews the recent advances in this emerging field which is dubbed as integrated microwave photonics. Key integrated MWP technologies are reviewed and the prospective of the field is discussed.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed transmission using all-optical discrete Fourier transform (pages 539–553)

      June-Koo K. Rhee, Neda Cvijetic, Naoya Wada and Ting Wang

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200050

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      Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) can provide spectrally efficient communication channels because it can utilize carrier orthogonality and various impairment mitigation methods. An optical OFDM signal can be generated electronically to multiplex lower-rate carriers. In recent advancements, OFDM signals are also shown to be generated and demultiplexed by all-optical discrete Fourier transform (DFT), overcoming the speed limit of electronics for >Tbps capacity. High-performance DFT devices, such as arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) or planar lightwave circuit (PLC), are critically required to obtain strong orthogonality for scalable all-optical OFDM (AO-OFDM) system implementations. Advanced techniques such as coherent modulation and detection with digital impairment mitigation are also important for long-reach AO-OFDM transmissions. More recently, optical superchannel schemes have been introduced utilizing coherent detection for multi-Tbps AO-OFDM transmissions. This paper reviews the device and system aspects for the AO-OFDM technology, including a generalized theoretical model to provide an indepth understanding.

  8. Comment

    1. Top of page
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    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
    1. Reply to comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser (pages 555–556)

      Lukasz Kornaszewski, Gareth Maker, Graeme Malcolm, Mantas Butkus, Edik U. Rafailov and Craig Hamilton

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300008

  9. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
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    4. Issue Information
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    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
    1. Pulse-shape instabilities and their measurement (pages 557–565)

      Michelle Rhodes, Günter Steinmeyer, Justin Ratner and Rick Trebino

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200102

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multi-shot pulse-shape measurements of trains of ultrashort pulses with unstable pulse shapes are studied. Measurement techniques considered include spectral-phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER), second harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), polarization gate FROG, and cross-correlation FROG. An analytical calculation and simulations show that SPIDER cannot see unstable pulse-shape components and only measures the coherent artifact. Further, the presence of this instability cannot be distinguished from benign misalignment effects in SPIDER. FROG methods yield a better, although necessarily rough, estimate of the pulse shape and also indicate instability by exhibiting disagreement between measured and retrieved traces. Only good agreement between measured and retrieved FROG traces or 100% SPIDER fringe visibility guarantees a stable pulse train.

    2. Nanostructured fibers for sub-10 fs optical pulse delivery (pages 566–570)

      Martin Bock, Julia Skibina, Dorit Fischer, Mario Bretschneider, Reiner Wedell, Rüdiger Grunwald, Sven Burger, Valentin Beloglazov and Günter Steinmeyer

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel fiber technology is presented that enables the transmission of 200 nm wide spectra over meter-long distances with minimal temporal reshaping and acceptable losses down to about 3 dB/m. Delivery of a 10 fs pulse over nearly meter distance is experimentally demonstrated, which sets a new standard for the fiber-based delivery of few-cycle pulses. Numerical simulations provide insight into the unique guiding mechanism in the novel hollow-core fiber technology, enabling dispersion parameters that are within an order of magnitude of those available in free space propagation.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
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      Optical isotropization of anisotropic wurtzite Al-rich AlGaN via asymmetric modulation with ultrathin (GaN)m/ (AlN)n superlattices (page 571)

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370046

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Symmetric anisotropy in wurtzite semiconductors, e.g., AlGaN, has led to the significant optical anisotropy that is rather difficult to resolve. W. Lin et al. (pp. 572–579) demonstrate a novel scheme for achieving optical isotropization in Al-rich AlGaN through the introduction of additional asymmetric elements to compensate the native asymmetry. Asymmetric modulation of alloy composition and periodicity of (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlatices was proposed with first-principles simulations. Results showed that the compensation for the c-axial symmetry with the asymmetric ultrathin (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlatices (m ≤ 2) could well achieve the equivalence of the ordinary and extraordinary imaginary dielectric functions ε2a at the band edge. Measurement with spectroscopic ellipsometry for this (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlatice insertion in AlGaN host confirmed the theoretical predictions of the optical isotropization. This method can be transferred to other semiconductors in anisotropic structure and with troubles of optical anisotropy.

  11. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
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    8. Review Articles
    9. Comment
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Editor's Choice
    14. Letters
    1. Optical isotropization of anisotropic wurtzite Al-rich AlGaN via asymmetric modulation with ultrathin (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices (pages 572–579)

      Wei Lin, Wei Jiang, Na Gao, Duanjun Cai, Shuping Li and Junyong Kang

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200118

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Symmetric anisotropy in wurtzite semiconductors, e.g., AlGaN, has led to the significant optical anisotropy that is rather difficult to resolve. Here, a novel scheme for achieving optical isotropization in Al-rich AlGaN through the introduction of additional asymmetric elements is demonstrated to compensate the native asymmetry. Asymmetric modulation of alloy composition and periodicity of (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlatices was proposed with first-principles simulations. Results showed that the compensation for the c-axial symmetry with the asymmetric ultrathin (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlatices (m ≤ 2) could well achieve the equivalence of the ordinary and extraordinary imaginary dielectric functions ε2 at the band edge. Measurement with spectroscopic ellipsometry for this (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlatice insertion in AlGaN host confirmed the theoretical predictions of the optical isotropization. This method can be transferred to other semiconductors in anisotropic structure and with troubles of optical anisotropy.

    2. Direct measurement of the effective input noise power of an optical parametric amplifier (pages 580–588)

      Christian Homann and Eberhard Riedle

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200119

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The spontaneous fluorescence background in optical parametric amplifiers is generally attributed to the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. These are amplified in parallel to the seed light and lead to an uncompressible superfluorescence background that deteriorates the contrast in optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers (OPCPA). The absolute level of the underlying parametric fluorescence has not been reported so far. Comparing the fluorescence to low level cw seed light and quantitatively monitoring the output of a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier for both sources, the level is now determined. In a situation of 50 nm visible output bandwidth and low Gaussian spatial modes about 58 photons are found in the signal direction within the femtosecond time window of the amplifier. The superfluorescence level is observed to be proportional to the pump area for constant signal amplification. The implications for the background in high power OPCPA are discussed.

    3. Intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensing with a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback laser (pages 589–598)

      Edward H. Bernhardi, Kees O. van der Werf, Anton J. F. Hollink, Kerstin Wörhoff, René M. de Ridder, Vinod Subramaniam and Markus Pollnau

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200111

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      An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped amorphous aluminum oxide on a silicon substrate is demonstrated. Real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single micro-particles with diameters ranging between 1 µm and 20 µm are achieved, which represent the typical sizes of many fungal and bacterial pathogens as well as a large variety of human cells. A limit of detection of ∼500 nm is deduced. The sensing principle relies on measuring changes in the frequency difference between the two longitudinal laser modes as the evanescent field of the dual-wavelength laser interacts with micro-sized particles on the surface of the waveguide. Improvement in sensitivity far down to the nanometer range can be expected upon stabilizing the pump power, minimizing back reflections, and optimizing the grating geometry to increase the evanescent fraction of the guided modes.

    4. Mechanism of pulse laser interaction with colloidal nanoparticles (pages 596–604)

      Alexander Pyatenko, Hongqiang Wang, Naoto Koshizaki and Takeshi Tsuji

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300013

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      The laser is a very powerful and very useful instrument in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. The knowledge of the interaction mechanism of the laser beam with nanoparticles is needed to control the laser processing of different nano-objects. It was shown that the particle heating–melting–evaporation model can be successfully applied for many phenomena arising when colloidal nanoparticle interact with pulsed laser beams. The general approach of this model is discussed in detail. The two main components of the model, light absorption by particles, and the thermodynamics of phase transitions in particulate material are considered. Special attention is devoted to the correct estimation of the possible heat losses. The way in which the phase diagrams, where the different phase conditions of particle material are presented in laser fluence−particle diameter coordinates, were produced is demonstrated. It is shown how this model can be applied for understanding the mechanism of such complicated processes as particle-size reduction and submicrometer spherical particle growth, as well as other processes that occur when colloidal particles are irradiated by a pulsed laser.

  12. Editor's Choice

    1. Top of page
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      High-power HgGa2S4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1064 nm and operating at 100 Hz (pages L21–L24)

      Aleksey Tyazhev, Georgi Marchev, Valeriy Badikov, Adolfo Esteban-Martin, Dmitrii Badikov, Vladimir Panyutin, Galina Shevyrdyaeva, Svetlana Sheina, Anna Fintisova and Valentin Petrov

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300023

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The defect chalcopyrite crystal HgGa2S4 has been employed in a 1064-nm pumped optical parametric oscillator operating at 100 Hz, to generate ∼5 ns long idler pulses near 4 µm with energies as high as 6.1 mJ and average power of 610 mW. At crystal dimensions comparable to those available for the commercial AgGaS2 crystal, operation of the 1064-nm pumped HgGa2S4 OPO is characterized by much lower pump threshold and higher conversion efficiency, with the most important consequence that such a device might become practical at pump levels sufficiently lower than the optical damage threshold.

  13. Letters

    1. Top of page
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    14. Letters
    1. Tunable nonlinear beam shaping by non-collinear interactions (pages L25–L29)

      Asia Shapira, Irit Juwiler and Ady Arie

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A method is proposed for nonlinear beam shaping, employing a non-collinear quasi phase-matched interaction in a crystal whose nonlinear coefficient is encoded by a computer generated hologram pattern. In this method the same axis is used for both satisfying the phase-matching requirements and encoding the holographic information, the result is a single shaped beam in the generated frequency. This allows to shape beams in one-dimension using a very simple method to fabricate patterned nonlinear crystals and to shape beams in two-dimensions with high conversion efficiency. The one-dimensional case is experimentally demonstrated by converting a fundamental Gaussian beam into Hermite-Gaussian beams at the second harmonic in a KTiOPO4 crystal. The two-dimensional case is demonstrated by generating Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian beams in a stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal. The suggested scheme enables broad wavelength tuning by simply tilting the crystal.

    2. Dual-wavelength monolithic Y-branch distributed Bragg reflection diode laser at 671 nm suitable for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (pages L30–L33)

      Martin Maiwald, Jörg Fricke, Arnim Ginolas, Johannes Pohl, Bernd Sumpf, Götz Erbert and Günther Tränkle

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A dual-wavelength monolithic Y-branch distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) diode laser at 671 nm is presented. The device is realized with deeply etched surface DBR gratings by one-step epitaxy. A maximum optical output power of 110 mW is obtained in cw-operation for each laser cavity. The emission wavelengths of the device are 670.5 nm and 671.0 nm with a spectral width of 13 pm (0.3 cm−1) and a mean spectral distance of 0.46 nm (10.2 cm−1) over the whole operating range. Together with a free running power stability of ± 1.1% this most compact diode laser is ideally suited as an excitation light source for portable shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS).

    3. A spurious frequencies suppression method for optical frequency comb based microwave photonic filter (pages L34–L38)

      Jinxin Liao, Xiaoxiao Xue, He Wen, Shangyuan Li, Xiaoping Zheng, Hanyi Zhang and Bingkun Zhou

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300005

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The traditional optical frequency comb (OFC) based microwave photonic filters (MPFs) are rigidly restricted to be operated in a single “Nyquist zone”, as varieties of spurious frequencies signals coexist in the output. Here, a method for spurious frequencies suppression in the OFC-based MPF is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The method is achieved by applying group velocity dispersion on the carrier combs to separate the filter transfer functions of the spurious frequencies from that of the input radio frequency signal. It is fairly simple and effective, and has no effect on the filter characteristic. With this method, the filter pass band can be freely tuned without the limitation of the “Nyquist zone”. It can be considered as a step forward for the practical application of the OFC-based MPF.

    4. Photonic crystal boosted chemiluminescence reaction (pages L39–L43)

      Xiaodi Shi, Mingzhu Li, Changqing Ye, Weizhi Shen, Yongqiang Wen, Linfeng Chen, Qiang Yang, Lei Shi, Lei Jiang and Yanlin Song

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300031

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      With an optimized photonic crystal, the chemiluminescence intensity is enhanced by 44.9 times and the chemiluminescence emission light intensity decay rate is accelerated 3.2 times. The interaction between the chemiluminescence system and the photonic crystal is discussed. The results will exploit a new platform for the photonic crystal based chemiluminescence assay.

      Corrected by:

      ERRATUM: Photonic crystal boosted chemiluminescence reaction

      Vol. 7, Issue 6, A62, Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013

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