• Laser prototyping;
  • femtosecond laser;
  • nanofabrication;
  • lamellate growth;
  • surface wrinkling


Micronanofabrication technologies developed so far pursue faithful conversion from digital models to matter structures. This is vital for microdevices in optics, mechanics, and electronics, where device shape and size matter. However, biotissues grow under rich environmental factor interactions, as demands novel manufacturing approaches for biomimetic and biological fabrication. Here, a concept of dynamic laser prototyping is reported, which is based on a new finding of a multilayered three-dimensional (3D) wrinkling phenomenon. The 3D wrinkling started with formation of a photocrosslinked hydrogel sheet by femtosecond laser direct writing. It was followed by spontaneous self-bending of the sheet, caused by a purposely designed sheet–substrate stress mismatch. The flower blooming process has been successfully mimicked, indicating broader usages of the technology in biotissue-growth-related manufacturing.