Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 10 Issue 4

July 2016

Volume 10, Issue 4

Pages 533–695

  1. Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Three-dimensional Luneburg lens at optical frequencies (Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4)/2016) (page 533)

      Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Yong-Liang Zhang, Mei-Ling Zheng, Xian-Zi Dong, Xuan-Ming Duan and Zhen-Sheng Zhao

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201670045

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A Luneburg lens is a fascinating gradient refractive index lens that can focus parallel light on a perfect point without aberration in geometrical optics. A three-dimensional (3D) Luneburg lens operating at optical frequencies is proposed by Zhao et al. as a first experimental demonstration. This gradient refractive index lens is realized by laser direct writing, and the refractive profile of simple cubic metamaterials is tailored by the fill factor. Experimentally, 3D ideal focus performance has been observed via near-field optical microscopy, which is a direct experimental evidence for 3D Luneburg lens to achieve the ideal focus of mid-IR light.

      (Picture: Yuan-Yuan Zhao et al., 10.1002/lpor.201600051 pp. 665–672, in this issue)

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      A localized surface plasmon resonance and light confinement-enhanced near-infrared light photodetector (Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4)/2016) (page 534)

      Rui Lu, Cai-Wang Ge, Yi-Feng Zou, Kun Zheng, Dan-Dan Wang, Teng-Fei Zhang and Lin-Bao Luo

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201670046

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-performance near infrared light photodetector was developed by Lu et al. by modifying a monolayer graphene (MLG)—germanium nanoneedles array Schottky junction with heavily doped indium tin oxide nanocrystals. The as-fabricated plasmonic nano-photodetector displayed high sensitivity to 1550 nm illumination with excellent reproducibility, good spectral response, and fast response speed.

      (Picture: Rui Lu et al., 10.1002/lpor.201500179 pp. 595–602, in this issue)

    2. You have free access to this content
      Figure of merit for Kerr nonlinear plasmonic waveguides (Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4)/2016) (page 535)

      Guangyuan Li, C. Martijn de Sterke and Stefano Palomba

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201670047

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The article by Li et al. proposes a simple, versatile Figure of Merit based on the material damage threshold and the optimal length that balances the Kerr effect and linear loss. It allows efficient, quantitative evaluation of various Kerr nonlinear plasmonic waveguides and gives best parameters for nonlinear optical devices such as wavelength converters.

      (Picture: Guangyuan Li et al., 10.1002/lpor.201600020 pp. 639–646, in this issue)

    3. You have free access to this content
      Experimental demonstration of PT-symmetric stripe lasers (Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4)/2016) (page 697)

      Zhiyuan Gu, Nan Zhang, Quan Lyu, Meng Li, Shumin Xiao and Qinghai Song

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201670048

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A PT-symmetric configuration is applied by Gu et al. on a dye-doped waveguide, i. e., half gain and half loss. With the increase of pumping power, two adjacent modes merge and thus the mode spacing is doubled after the exceptional point. The laser and absorber are obtained simultaneously in this PT-symmetric system. This research provides a new platform to study the applications of unconventional lasers such as optical switches and direct modulated microlasers.

      (Picture: Zhiyuan Gu et al., 10.1002/lpor.201500114 pp. 588–594, in this issue)

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Splitting of magnetic dipole modes in anisotropic TiO2 micro-spheres (Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4)/2016) (page 698)

      Irina Khromova, Petr Kužel, Igal Brener, John L. Reno, U-Chan Chung Seu, Catherine Elissalde, Mario Maglione, Patrick Mounaix and Oleg Mitrofanov

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201670049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The sphere in the centre of the cover picture is an SEM (scanning electron microscopy) image of one of the titanium dioxide spheres studied by Khromova et al. The incoming broadband terahertz (THz) pulse (white pulse and white beam) excites two non-degenerate orthogonal magnetic dipole modes in the sphere (due to material anisotropy). These modes are represented as ripples of the excited propagating fields (blue and red) and as corresponding signature pulses (red and blue) as detected in the authors' experiment using time-domain spectroscopy. The blue and red colours as well as the pulse shapes represent the difference in the resonance frequency of the two excited modes.

      (Picture: Irina Khromova et al., 10.1002/lpor.201600084 pp. 681–687, in this issue)

  4. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information: Laser & Photon. Rev. 10(4)/2016

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201670042

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. Call for Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
  7. Editorial Advisory Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
  8. Retrospect

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Retrospect: Laser & Photon. Rev. 10(4)/2016 (page 547)

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201670041

  9. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. Out of the blue: semiconductor laser pumped visible rare-earth doped lasers (pages 548–568)

      Christian Kränkel, Daniel-Timo Marzahl, Francesca Moglia, Günter Huber and Philip Werner Metz

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201500290

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The current state of visible rare-earth doped crystalline lasers under pumping with novel blue semiconductor-based pump sources is reviewed. Spectroscopy and laser results of Pr3+-, Sm3+-, Tb3+-, Dy3+-, Ho3+-, and Er3+-doped laser materials are presented.

    2. Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators (pages 569–587)

      Ingo Breunig

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600038

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper provides an overview of frequency converters based on three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators (WGRs). Simple analytic expressions for the input-output characteristics of all basic processes are given and discussed. Millimeter-sized devices reach conversion efficiencies exceeding 50% at milliwatt input powers. The recent experimental progress in the development of on-chip WGRs indicates that micrometer-sized WGR-based frequency converters will find the way out of the lab into real-world applications.

  10. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Contents
    7. Call for Papers
    8. Editorial Advisory Board
    9. Retrospect
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    1. Experimental demonstration of PT-symmetric stripe lasers (pages 588–594)

      Zhiyuan Gu, Nan Zhang, Quan Lyu, Meng Li, Shumin Xiao and Qinghai Song

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201500114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A loss-fixed PT-symmetry CPA laser has been experimentally demonstrated in the dye-doped stripe waveguide. The waveguide is equally subdivided. One half is pumped and functions as the gain region, whereas the unpumped half works as the loss region. With the increase of pumping power above threshold, doubled mode spacing and bifurcation in intensities of two lasing modes have been observed, clearly demonstrating the behaviors of a CPA laser.

    2. A localized surface plasmon resonance and light confinement-enhanced near-infrared light photodetector (pages 595–602)

      Rui Lu, Cai-Wang Ge, Yi-Feng Zou, Kun Zheng, Dan-Dan Wang, Teng-Fei Zhang and Lin-Bao Luo

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201500179

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-performance near infrared (NIR) nano-photodetector has been fabricated by coating n-type Ge nanoneedles array with plasmonic single-layer graphene, which was modified with heavily doped indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. The as-fabricated device was highly sensitive to NIR light illumination (1550 nm), with good reproducibility and spectral selectivity.

    3. Observation of optomechanical coupling in a microbottle resonator (pages 603–611)

      Motoki Asano, Yuki Takeuchi, Weijian Chen, Şahin Kaya Özdemir, Rikizo Ikuta, Nobuyuki Imoto, Lan Yang and Takashi Yamamoto

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201500243

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Coupling between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom in a microresonator via the radiation pressure of photons has opened new directions for applied and fundamental studies ranging from precision measurements and sensing to studying quantum regime of mechanical systems and new ways of controlling photons by phonons and vice versa. Here, optomechanical coupling, phonon lasing and resolved-side band regime have been demonstrated in a solid-core whispering-gallery-mode microbottle resonator. Ultra-high quality factors, easy fabrication, and all-fiber structure provide distinct advantages over other optomechanical resonators.

    4. III-nitride quantum dots for ultra-efficient solid-state lighting (pages 612–622)

      Jonathan J. Wierer Jr., Nelson Tansu, Arthur J. Fischer and Jeffrey Y. Tsao

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201500332

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      III-nitride quantum dots (QDs) are investigated as active regions in both light-emitting diodes and laser diodes in order to circumvent Auger recombination for improved performance. The lower transparency current densities and higher spontaneous emission rates in QDs results in higher efficiencies, and at much higher current densities compared to quantum wells (QWs). If synthesized properly, QD-based light-emitting devices could enable an era of ultra-efficient solid-state lighting.

    5. Frequency stability characterization of a quantum cascade laser frequency comb (pages 623–630)

      Francesco Cappelli, Giulio Campo, Iacopo Galli, Giovanni Giusfredi, Saverio Bartalini, Davide Mazzotti, Pablo Cancio, Simone Borri, Borislav Hinkov, Jérôme Faist and Paolo De Natale

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The attempt of frequency stabilizing a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb (QCL-comb) against a metrological DFG comb through a single phase-locking chain is presented. A discussion on how the locking affects the physics of the system is carried out, finding that the current locking essentially acts on the effective refractive index to reduce the common noise, without perturbing the group refractive index and the mode spacing. Nonetheless, the single QCL-comb tooth linewidth is significantly reduced.

    6. Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators (pages 631–638)

      Leiran Wang, Lin Chang, Nicolas Volet, Martin H. P. Pfeiffer, Michael Zervas, Hairun Guo, Tobias J. Kippenberg and John E. Bowers

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An optical frequency comb emitted in the visible and fabricated with CMOS-compatible processes is demonstrated. This green-light comb is converted from a broadband near-infrared Kerr comb generated in an integrated silicon nitride ring microresonator with a high quality factor. New records are set for the bandwidth and for the conversion efficiency of visible combs, which is useful for on-chip optical clocks and may be applied to new self-referencing schemes.

    7. Figure of merit for Kerr nonlinear plasmonic waveguides (pages 639–646)

      Guangyuan Li, C. Martijn de Sterke and Stefano Palomba

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Plasmonic waveguides are a promising platform for ultra-compact and low-power nonlinear optical interactions. Based on a rigorous definition of the optimal length, balancing the Kerr effect and the linear loss, we define a simple and versatile Figure of Merit for efficient, quantitative comparison of the Kerr nonlinear performance of different plasmonic structures. It includes not only the effects of loss and plasmonic field enhancement, but also the material damage threshold.

    8. Directional fluorescence emission from a compact plasmonic-diamond hybrid nanostructure (pages 647–655)

      Hongming Shen, R. Y. Chou, Yuen Yung Hui, Yingbo He, Yuqing Cheng, Huan-Cheng Chang, Limin Tong, Qihuang Gong and Guowei Lu

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600021

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Unidirectional emission from a fluorescent nanodiamond is achieved in an experiment by coupling it to a single gold nanorod as an ultracompact antenna.

    9. Enhanced photonic spin Hall effect with subwavelength topological edge states (pages 656–664)

      Alexey P. Slobozhanyuk, Alexander N. Poddubny, Ivan S. Sinev, Anton K. Samusev, Ye Feng Yu, Arseniy I. Kuznetsov, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko and Yuri S. Kivshar

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600042

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two seemingly different subjects, namely topological photonics and optical spin Hall effect, are bridged together by predicting theoretically and demonstrating experimentally the topology-enhanced photonic spin Hall effect. By employing near-field scanning techniques, the selective excitation of the edge states controlled by the handedness of an incident wave is mapped directly, for both optical and microwave experiments. The specific features of the photonic structure symmetry required to enhance the photonic spin Hall effect through topological properties are revealed.

    10. Three-dimensional Luneburg lens at optical frequencies (pages 665–672)

      Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Yong-Liang Zhang, Mei-Ling Zheng, Xian-Zi Dong, Xuan-Ming Duan and Zhen-Sheng Zhao

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600051

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A 3D Luneburg lens operating at optical frequencies is proposed as an experimental demonstration. This gradient refractive index lens is realized by laser direct writing, and the refractive profile of simple cubic metamaterials is tailored by the fill factor. Experimentally, 3D ideal focus performance has been observed via near-field optical microscopy, which is direct experimental evidence for 3D Luneburg lens to achieve the ideal focus of mid-IR light.

    11. High energy Yb:YAG active mirror laser system for transform limited pulses bridging the picosecond gap (pages 673–680)

      Mathias Siebold, Markus Loeser, Fabian Röser, Daniel Albach, Michael Bussmann, Sebastian Eckhardt, Andrés Fabián Lasagni, Roland Sauerbrey and Ulrich Schramm

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600063

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A diode-pumped Yb:YAG MOPA-System for transform limited pulses with variable pulse duration in the range between 10 ps and 100 ps is presented. First applications relying on modulation free spectrum, tunability and coherence length are highlighted. Fs-pulses of a mode-locked oscillator are spectrally narrowed in a regenerative amplifier by an intra-cavity grating monochromator. Booster amplifiers were added to increase the pulse energy to 100μJ and 10 mJ, respectively.

    12. Splitting of magnetic dipole modes in anisotropic TiO2 micro-spheres (pages 681–687)

      Irina Khromova, Petr Kužel, Igal Brener, John L. Reno, U-Chan Chung Seu, Catherine Elissalde, Mario Maglione, Patrick Mounaix and Oleg Mitrofanov

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600084

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Strong dielectric anisotropy at terahertz (THz) frequencies splits the Mie magnetic dipole mode in monocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro-spheres. The splitting is experimentally confirmed using near-field THz time-domain spectroscopy. The resonances correspond to orthogonal magnetic dipole modes with narrow linewidths of only tens of gigahertz. The anisotropy of TiO2 can be exploited in the emerging THz all-dielectric metamaterial technology.

    13. Ultrafast all-optical order-to-chaos transition in silicon photonic crystal chips (pages 688–695)

      Roman Bruck, Changxu Liu, Otto L. Muskens, Andrea Fratalocchi and Andrea Di  Falco

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600086

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article demonstrates the dynamic transition from order to chaos in a silicon on insulator platform. The dynamic control is achieved by external pumping of a photonic crystal microresonator. The onset of the chaotic regime is characterized through detailed spatiotemporal activity maps of the system.

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