Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 6

December 2008

Volume 2, Issue 6

Pages 415–556

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
    1. Cover Picture: Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(6)/2008 (page 415)

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200890003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cross section of a PCF with inner and outer cladding where an LPG has been impressed in the core. Cover picture: O. Frazão et al., pp. 449–459, in this issue.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
    1. Contents: Laser & Photon. Rev.: 2(6)/2008 (pages 417–420)

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810514

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
  4. News and Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
    1. News and Highlights (pages 423–425)

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810515

  5. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
  6. Conference News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
    1. Conference News (pages 426–427)

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810516

  7. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
    1. Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers (pages 429–448)

      S. Ramachandran, J.M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J.W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi and M.F. Yan

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810016

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      This paper describes the physics and properties of a novel optical fiber that would be attractive for building high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers. Instead of propagating light in the fundamental, Gaussian-shaped mode, we describe a fiber in which the signal is forced to travel in a single, desired higher order mode (HOM). This provides for several advantages over the conventional approach, ranging from significantly higher ability to scale mode areas (and hence laser powers) to managing dispersion for ultra-short pulses – a capability that is practically nonexistent in conventional fibers. Particularly interesting is the fact that this approach challenges conventional wisdom, and demonstrates that for applications requiring meter-length fibers (as in high-power lasers), signal stability actually increases with mode order. Using this approach, we demonstrate mode areas exceeding 3200 μm2, and propagate signals with negligible mode distortions over up to 50-meter lengths. We describe several pulse propagation experiments in which we test the nonlinear response of this fiber platform, ranging from managing dispersive effects in femtosecond pulse systems, to reducing Brillouin scattering impairments in systems operating with the nanosecond pulses.

  8. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
    1. Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers (pages 449–459)

      O. Frazão, J.L. Santos, F.M. Araújo and L.A. Ferreira

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810034

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      A review of optical fiber sensing demonstrations based on photonic crystal fibers is presented. The text is organized in five main sections: the first three deal with sensing approaches relying on fiber Bragg gratings, long-period gratings and interferometric structures; the fourth one reports applications of these fibers for gas and liquid sensing; finally, the last section focuses on the exploitation of nonlinear effects in photonic crystal fibers for sensing. A brief review about splicing with photonic crystal fibers is also included.

    2. All-optical virtual private network in passive optical networks (pages 460–479)

      Y. Su, Y. Tian, E. Wong, N. Nadarajah and C.C.K. Chan

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810021

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      We review recent progress on all-optical virtual-private-network (VPN) schemes in passive optical networks (PONs). PON is a promising candidate in future access areas to provide broadband services with low cost. With all-optical virtual private network (VPN) function, PON can support efficient internetworking among end users with dedicated optical channels, thus enabling guaranteed bandwidth and enhanced security at the physical layer. Here, we discuss and compare existing schemes of all-optical VPNs in time-division-multiplexed (TDM) PONs, and also recently proposed schemes for deployment in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) PONs and two-stage TDM/WDM PONs.

  9. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
    1. Parametric amplification and processing in optical fibers (pages 498–513)

      S. Radic

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810049

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      We review recent progress made in parametric amplification and signal processing using high confinement fibers. In contrast to crystalline and semiconductor devices, fiber parametric amplifiers offer interaction lengths that can vary from 10 m to 1 km and are not limited by waveguide losses. The operation, design and impairment physics of general fiber parametric devices are reviewed. The technology prospects for advanced signal processing are discussed.

  10. Editor's Choice

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
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      Photon confinement in photonic crystal nanocavities (pages 514–526)

      P. Lalanne, C. Sauvan and J.P. Hugonin

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The quest for enhanced light-matter interactions has enabled a tremendous increase in the performance of photonic-crystal nanoresonators in the past decade. State-of-the-art nanocavities now offer mode lifetime in the nanosecond range with confinement volumes of a few hundredths of a cubic micrometer. These results are certainly a consequence of the rapid development of fabrication techniques and modeling tools at micro- and nanometric scales. For future applications and developments, it is necessary to deeply understand the intrinsic physical quantities that govern the photon confinement in these cavities. We present a review of the different physical mechanisms at work in the photon confinement of almost all modern PhC cavity constructs. The approach relies on a Fabry-Perot picture and emphasizes three intrinsic quantities, the mirror reflectance, the mirror penetration depth and the defect-mode group velocity, which are often hidden by global analysis relying on an a posteriori analysis of the calculated cavity mode. The discussion also includes nanoresonator constructs, such as the important micropillar cavity, for which some subtle scattering mechanisms significantly alter the Fabry-Perot picture.

  11. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. News and Highlights
    6. Book Review
    7. Conference News
    8. Review
    9. Reviews
    10. Review
    11. Editor's Choice
    12. Review
    1. Quantum many-body phenomena in coupled cavity arrays (pages 527–556)

      M.J. Hartmann, F.G.S.L. Brandão and M.B. Plenio

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.200810046

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The increasing level of experimental control over atomic and optical systems gained in recent years has paved the way for the exploration of new physical regimes in quantum optics and atomic physics, characterised by the appearance of quantum many-body phenomena, originally encountered only in condensed-matter physics, and the possibility of experimentally accessing them in a more controlled manner. In this review article we survey recent theoretical studies concerning the use of cavity quantum electrodynamics to create quantum many-body systems. Based on recent experimental progress in the fabrication of arrays of interacting micro-cavities and on their coupling to atomic-like structures in several different physical architectures, we review proposals on the realisation of paradigmatic many-body models in such systems, such as the Bose-Hubbard and the anisotropic Heisenberg models. Such arrays of coupled cavities offer interesting properties as simulators of quantum many-body physics, including the full addressability of individual sites and the accessibility of inhomogeneous models.

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