Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 1

January 2014

Volume 8, Issue 1

Pages i–ii, A1–A12, 1–195, L1–L10

  1. Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
      Front Cover: Quantum dot and wire excitonics for lighting (Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1)/2014)

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201480010

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Understanding of the excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires and ability to tailor excitonic interactions will enable to achieve the true potential of thesematerials for efficient lighting and displays. B. Guzelturk et al. review and discuss the crucial excitonic interactions in the composites of these 0D and 1D materials.

      (Picture: B. Guzelturk et al. 10.1002/lpor.201300024, pp. 73–93, in this issue)

  2. Inside Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
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      Inside Back Cover: Broadband and high-efficiency conversion from guided waves to spoof surface plasmon polaritons (Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1)/2014)

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201480012

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In order to feed powers into and extract signals from the SSPP structures efficiently, the first efficient conversion between the guided waves and SSPP waves is presented. A matching transition which possesses gradient corrugation grooves and flaring ground has been proposed to match the momentum and impedance simultaneously of the plasmonic waveguide and coplanar waveguide, to achieve low-loss transmissions.

      (Picture: H. F. Ma et al. 10.1002/lpor.201300118, pp. 146–151, in this issue)

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
      Back Cover: Ultrathin plasmonic metamaterial for spoof localized surface plasmons (Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1)/2014)

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201480013

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) on a planar texturedmetallic disk are proposed and experimentally demonstrated in themicrowave frequency. The designed plasmonic particle shows clearlymultipolar plasmonic resonances, including the dipole, quadrupole, hexapole, octopole, decapole, dodeca-pole, and quattuordec-polemodes. The numerical simulations and experiments are in good agreements. The experimental realization of spoof LSPs on planar plasmonic metamaterial offers great practical advantages in the potential applications.

      (Picture: Xiaopeng Shen and Tie Jun Cui 10.1002/lpor.201300144, pp. 137–145, in this issue)

  4. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
  5. Call for Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. Editorial Advisory Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
  7. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
  8. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
  9. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. Laser nanofabrication in photoresists and azopolymers (pages 1–26)

      Zouheir Sekkat and Satoshi Kawata

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200081

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      Recent progress in the field of single- and two-photon nanofabrication, both 2- and 3-dimensional, in photopolymerizable resins and in films of photoisomerizable azopolymers are reviewed. The basic processes as well as technological advances and applications of nanofabrication by light are discussed. Recent advances and achievements in polymer photomechanics and light-activated molecular movement in azopolymers are also reviewed.

    2. Challenges in the fabrication of fibre Bragg gratings in silica and polymer microstructured optical fibres (pages 27–52)

      Francis Berghmans, Thomas Geernaert, Tigran Baghdasaryan and Hugo Thienpont

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200103

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      This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of grating fabrication in silica and polymer microstructured optical fibres. It focuses on the difficulties and challenges encountered during photo-inscription of such gratings and more specifically on the effect of the air hole lattice microstructure in the cladding of the fibre on the transverse coupling of the coherent writing light to the core region of the fibre. Experimental and computational quantities introduced thus far to assess the influence of the photonic crystal lattice on grating writing efficiency are reviewed as well, together with techniques that have been proposed to mitigate this influence. Finally, early proposals to adapt the microstructure in view of possibly enhancing multi-photon grating fabrication efficiency are discussed.

    3. Semiconductor optical fibres: progress and opportunities (pages 53–72)

      Anna C. Peacock, Justin R. Sparks and Noel Healy

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300016

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      This paper reviews recent progress in the nascent field of semiconductor optical fibres, from the fundamentals through to device demonstration. The incorporation of semiconductor materials into both the step-index and microstructured fibre geometries provides a route to introducing new optoelectronic functionality into existing glass fibre technologies. Herein, the various fabrication methods that have been developed as of to date are described, and their compatibility with the different semiconductor materials and fibre designs discussed. Results will be presented on the optical transmission properties of several fibre types, with particular attention being paid to the observation of nonlinear propagation in silicon core fibres. Finally, some speculation regarding the future prospects and applications of this new class of fibre will be provided.

    4. Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays (pages 73–93)

      Burak Guzelturk, Pedro Ludwig Hernandez Martinez, Qing Zhang, Qihua Xiong, Handong Sun, Xiao Wei Sun, Alexander O. Govorov and Hilmi Volkan Demir

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300024

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      In the past two decades, semiconductor quantum dots and wires have developed into new, promising classes of materials for next-generation lighting and display systems due to their superior optical properties. In particular, exciton–exciton interactions through nonradiative energy transfer in hybrid systems of these quantum-confined structures have enabled exciting possibilities in light generation. This review focuses on the excitonics of such quantum dot and wire emitters, particularly transfer of the excitons in the complex media of the quantum dots and wires. Mastering excitonic interactions in low-dimensional systems is essential for the development of better light sources, e.g., high-efficiency, high-quality white-light generation; wide-range color tuning; and high-purity color generation. In addition, introducing plasmon coupling provides the ability to amplify emission in specially designed exciton–plasmon nanostructures and also to exceed the Förster limit in excitonic interactions. In this respect, new routes to control excitonic pathways are reviewed in this paper. The review further discusses research opportunities and challenges in the quantum dot and wire excitonics with a future outlook.

    5. Recent advances in bioluminescence tomography: methodology and system as well as application (pages 94–114)

      Chenghu Qin, Jinchao Feng, Shouping Zhu, Xibo Ma, Jianghong Zhong, Ping Wu, Zhengyu Jin and Jie Tian

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201280011

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      Optical molecular imaging has been rapidly developed to noninvasively visualize in vivo physiological and pathological processes involved in normal and suffering organisms at the cellular and molecular levels, in which advanced optical imaging technology and modern molecular biology are being combined to provide a state-of-the-art tool for preclinical biomedical research. Among optical molecular imaging modalities, bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has experienced considerable growth and attracted much attention in recent years for its excellent performance, unique advantages, and high cost-effectiveness. This article focuses on the genesis and development of BLT, especially for its computational methodology, imaging system, and biomedical application. An overview of the advantages and challenges of the conventional planar bioluminescence imaging technique is first described in comparison with currently available molecular imaging modalities. The imaging algorithms for inverse source reconstruction are classified and summarized according to different a priori knowledge, followed by a simple depiction of the uniqueness theorems of BLT solution. Diverse imaging systems for obtaining three-dimensional quantitative information of internal bioluminescent sources are then reviewed. The latest application examples of BLT in tumor study and drug discovery are introduced and compared with other mature imaging technologies. Finally, the paper is concluded and an attractive prospect for BLT is predicted.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Recent advances in bioluminescence tomography: methodology and system as well as application

      Vol. 9, Issue 1, Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2012

    6. Intracellular signaling cascades following light irradiation (pages 115–130)

      Shengnan Wu and Da Xing

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300015

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      Low-level light therapy (LLLT) using red to near-infrared (NIR) (630–1000 nm) light has gained attention in recent years as a therapy in ophthalmology, neurology, dermatology, dentology, and regenerative medicine. Advancement in the basic science fields of photobiology has propelled LLLT into the therapeutic revolution. The potential mechanisms on LLLT-induced biological effects have been investigated by numerous researchers throughout the world. This article reviews the current intracellular signaling cascades in photobiology and photomedicine under the influence of red to NIR light on mammalian cells. Specifically, mitochondrial retrograde signaling initiated by cytochrome c oxidase photomodulation is discussed in detail in the treatment of indications using LLLT, such as vitiligo management, retinal protection, and tumor therapy. The pathways through activating receptor tyrosine kinases are also highlighted in LLLT-induced neuroprotection, wound healing, and skeletal muscle regeneration. The understanding of the LLLT-induced biological reactions in cellular and subcellular levels is crucial for the advancement of LLLT in treatment of diseases.

  10. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. Editor's Choice

      You have free access to this content
      Nano-opto-mechanical effects in plasmonic waveguides (pages 131–136)

      Alexander S. Shalin, Pavel Ginzburg, Pavel A. Belov, Yuri S. Kivshar and Anatoly V. Zayats

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300109

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      In order to achieve interaction between light beams, a mediating material object is required. Nonlinear materials are commonly used for this purpose. Here a new approach to control light with light, based on a nano-opto-mechanical system integrated in a plasmonic waveguide is proposed. Optomechanics of a free-floating resonant nanoparticle in a subwavelength plasmonic V-groove waveguide is studied. It is shown that nanoparticle auto-oscillations in the waveguide induced by a control light result in the periodic modulation of a transmitted plasmonic signal. The modulation depth of 10% per single nanoparticle of 25 nm diameter with the clock frequencies of tens of MHz and the record low energy-per-bit energies of 10−18 J is observed. The frequency of auto-oscillations depends on the intensity of the continuous control light. The efficient modulation and deep-subwavelength dimensions make this nano-optomechanical system of significant interest for opto-electronic and opto-fluidic technologies.

    2. Ultrathin plasmonic metamaterial for spoof localized surface plasmons (pages 137–145)

      Xiaopeng Shen and Tie Jun Cui

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300144

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      The multipolar spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) on a planar textured metallic disk are proposed and experimentally demonstrated at microwave frequencies. Based on ultrathin metal film printed on a thin dielectric substrate, the designed plasmonic metamaterial clearly shows multipolar plasmonic resonances, including the dipole, quadrupole, hexapole, octopole, decapole, dodecapole, and quattuordecpole modes. Both numerical simulations and experiments are in good agreement. It is shown that the spoof LSP resonances are sensitive to the disk's geometry and local dielectric environments. Hence, the ultrathin textured metallic disk may be used as plasmonic sensors and find potential applications in the microwave and terahertz frequencies.

    3. Broadband and high-efficiency conversion from guided waves to spoof surface plasmon polaritons (pages 146–151)

      Hui Feng Ma, Xiaopeng Shen, Qiang Cheng, Wei Xiang Jiang and Tie Jun Cui

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300118

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      The conversion from spatial propagating waves to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) has been well studied, and shown to be very efficient by using gradient-index metasurfaces. However, feeding energies into and extracting signals from functional plasmonic devices or circuits through transmission lines require the efficient conversion between SPPs and guided waves, which has not been reported, to the best of our knowledge. In this paper, a smooth bridge between the conventional coplanar waveguide (CPW) with 50 Ω impedance and plasmonic waveguide (e.g., an ultrathin corrugated metallic strip) has been proposed in the microwave frequency, which converts the guided waves to spoof SPPs with high efficiency in broadband. A matching transition has been proposed and designed, which is constructed by gradient corrugations and flaring ground, to match both the momentum and impedance of CPW and the plasmonic waveguide. Simulated and measured results on the transmission coefficients and near-filed distributions show excellent transmission efficiency from CPW to a plasmonic waveguide to CPW in a wide frequency band. The high-efficiency and broadband conversion between SPPs and guided waves opens up a new avenue for advanced conventional plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits.

    4. Optimization-free superoscillatory lens using phase and amplitude masks (pages 152–157)

      Kun Huang, Huapeng Ye, Jinghua Teng, Swee Ping Yeo, Boris Luk'yanchuk and Cheng-Wei Qiu

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300123

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      A superoscillatory focusing lens has been experimentally demonstrated by optimizing Fresnel zone plates (FZP), with limited physical insight as to how the lens feature contributes to the focal formation. It is therefore imperative to establish a generalized viable account for both FZP (amplitude mask) and binary optics (phase mask). Arbitrary superoscillatory spots can now be customized and realized by a realistic optical device, without using optimization. It is counterintuitively found that high spatial frequency with small amplitude and destructive interference are favorable in superfocusing of a superoscillation pattern. The inevitably high sidelobe is pushed 15λ away from the central subwavelength spot, resulting in significantly enlarged field of view for viable imaging applications. This work therefore not only reveals the explicit physical role of any given metallic/dielectric rings but also provides an alternative design roadmap of superresolution imaging. The robust method is readily applicable in superthin longitudinally polarized needle light, quantum physics and information theory.

    5. A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass (pages 158–164)

      Rui Zhang, Hang Lin, Yunlong Yu, Daqin Chen, Ju Xu and Yuansheng Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300140

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      Currently, the major commercial white light-emitting diode (WLED) is the phosphor-converted LED made of the InGaN blue-emitting chip and the Ce3+:Y3Al5O12 (Ce:YAG) yellow phosphor dispersed in organic epoxy resin or silicone. However, the organic binder in high-power WLED may age easily and turn yellow due to the accumulated heat emitted from the chip, which adversely affects the WLED properties such as luminous efficacy and color coordination, and therefore reduces its long-term reliability as well as lifetime. Herein, an innovative luminescent material: transparent Ce:YAG phosphor-in-glass (PiG) inorganic color converter, is developed to replace the conventional resin/silicone-based phosphor converter for the construction of high-power WLED. The PiG-based WLED exhibits not only excellent heat-resistance and humidity-resistance characteristics, but also superior optical performances with a luminous efficacy of 124 lm/W, a correlated color temperature of 6674 K and a color rendering index of 70. This easy fabrication, low-cost and long-lifetime WLED is expected to be a new-generation indoor/outdoor high-power lighting source.

    6. ITO-free top emitting organic light emitting diodes with enhanced light out-coupling (pages 165–171)

      Soniya D. Yambem, Mujeeb Ullah, Kristen Tandy, Paul L. Burn and Ebinazar B. Namdas

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300148

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      Bottom emitting organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) can suffer from lower external quantum efficiencies (EQE) due to inefficient out-coupling of the generated light. Herein, it is demonstrated that the current efficiency and EQE of red, yellow, and blue fluorescent single layer polymer OLEDs is significantly enhanced when a MoOx(5 nm)/Ag(10 nm)/MoOx(40 nm) stack is used as the transparent anode in a top emitting OLED structure. A maximum current efficiency and EQE of 21.2 cd/A and 6.7%, respectively, was achieved for a yellow OLED, while a blue OLED achieved a maximum of 16.5 cd/A and 10.1%, respectively. The increase in light out-coupling from the top-emitting OLEDs led to increase in efficiency by a factor of up to 2.2 relative to the optimised bottom emitting devices, which is the best out-coupling reported using solution processed polymers in a simple architecture and a significant step forward for their use in large area lighting and displays.

    7. Thin film hexagonal gold grids as transparent conducting electrodes in organic light emitting diodes (pages 172–179)

      F. Laurent M. Sam, Christopher A. Mills, Lynn J. Rozanski and S. Ravi P. Silva

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300121

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      Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass is currently the preferred transparent conducting electrode (TCE) for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, ITO has its drawbacks, not least the scarcity of Indium, high processing temperatures, and inflexibility. A number of technologies have been put forward as replacements for ITO. In this paper, an OLED based on a gold grid TCE is demonstrated, the light emission through the grid is examined, and luminance and current measurements are reported. The gold grid has a sheet resistance of 15 Ω□−1 and a light transmission of 63% at 550 nm, comparable to ITO, but with advantages in terms of processing conditions and cost. The gold grid OLED has a lower turn-on voltage (7.7 V versus 9.8 V) and achieves a luminance of 100 cdm−2 at a lower voltage (10.9 V versus 12.4 V) than the reference ITO OLED. We discuss the lower turn-on voltage and the uniformity of the light output through the gold grid TCE and examine the conduction mechanisms in the ITO and gold grid TCE OLEDs.

    8. Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high-performance photonic BiCMOS (pages 180–187)

      David J. Thomson, Henri Porte, Bernhard Goll, Dieter Knoll, Stefan Lischke, Frederic Y. Gardes, Youfang Hu, Graham T. Reed, Horst Zimmermann and Lars Zimmermann

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300116

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      Optical modulators based upon carrier depletion have proven to be effective at achieving high speed operation in silicon. However, when incorporated into Mach-Zehnder Interferometer structures they require electronic driver amplifiers to provide peak to peak drive voltages of a few volts in order to achieve a large extinction ratio. For minimal performance degradation caused by the electrical connection between the driver and the modulator monolithic integration in the front end of the process is the preferred integration route. The formation of electronic driver amplifiers in BiCMOS is advantageous over CMOS in terms of achievable performance versus cost. In this work the first monolithic photonic integration in the electronic front-end of a high-performance BiCMOS technology process is demonstrated. Modulation at 10 Gbit/s is demonstrated with an extinction ratio >8 dB. The potential scalability of both the silicon photonic and BiCMOS elements make this technology an attractive prospect for the future.

    9. Ultrafast interband pumping of quantum-cascade structures: A feasibility study of a THz pulse amplifier (pages 188–195)

      Oleksiy V. Shulika, Mykhailo V. Klymenko and Igor A. Sukhoivanov

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300192

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      Gain spectra of a three-well GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-cascade structure under interband pumping by ultrashort optical pulses are studied within the framework of the density matrix theory. A mathematical model for intersubband kinetics is derived taking into account many-body interactions and ultrafast interband optical pumping. It is found that pulsed interband pumping leads to an increase in intersubband gain by an order of magnitude, which is characterised by 1 ps rise time and 8 ps recovery time under pumping by 100 fs pulses with a peak intensity of 100 MW/cm2. Possible implementations of the concept are highlighted. The results uncover a new possibility for ultrafast switching of the material gain in quantum-cascade structures.

  11. Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Back Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Issue Information
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Letters
    1. Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings (pages L1–L5)

      Izabela Spaleniak, Simon Gross, Nemanja Jovanovic, Robert J. Williams, Jon S. Lawrence, Michael J. Ireland and Michael J. Withford

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300129

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      The first demonstration of narrowband spectral filtering of multimode light on a 3D integrated photonic chip using photonic lanterns and waveguide Bragg gratings is reported. The photonic lanterns with multi-notch waveguide Bragg gratings were fabricated using the femtosecond direct-write technique in boro-aluminosilicate glass (Corning, Eagle 2000). Transmission dips of up to 5 dB were measured in both photonic lanterns and reference single-mode waveguides with 10.4-mm-long gratings. The result demonstrates efficient and symmetrical performance of each of the gratings in the photonic lantern. Such devices will be beneficial to space-division multiplexed communication systems as well as for units for astronomical instrumentation for suppression of the atmospheric telluric emission from OH lines.

    2. Highly efficient deep blue light emitting devices based on triphenylsilane modified phenanthro[9, 10-d]imidazole (pages L6–L10)

      Zhao Gao, Gang Cheng, Fangzhong Shen, Shitong Zhang, Yunan Zhang, Ping Lu and Yuguang Ma

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300141

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      Highly efficient deep blue fluorescent material (SiPIM) based on phenanthro[9, 10-d]imidazole (PPI) and triphenylsilane is designed and synthesized. SiPIM presents a narrow deep blue emission, high quantum yield, high thermal stability and good morphological stability. A non-doped vacuum-deposited device using SiPIM as active layer achieves an extremely high external quantum efficiency of 6.29% with true deep blue CIE coordinates of (0.163, 0.040). The solution-processed device is also tried due to the good solubility of SiPIM, which displays a maximum ηext of 2.40% and CIE coordinates of (0.157, 0.041).

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