Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 2

March 2014

Volume 8, Issue 2

Pages i–ii, A13–A19, 197–331, L13–L28

  1. Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
      Front Cover: A flexible OPD with high properties for applications (Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2)/2014)

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Low-voltage-control circuit is one of themost important parts of the modern electrical control system due to the avoidance of operation risk and easy automation. A flexible organic photodiode (OPD) is explored for the development of flexible low-voltage-control circuit under 2000 V high voltage. This sort ofOPD has a promising application in low-voltage-controlled, high-voltage-endurable hands for intelligent robots.

      (Picture: D. Li, X. Liu, G. Dong, et al. 10.1002/lpor.201300213, pp. 316–323, in this issue)

  2. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information: Laser & Photon. Rev. 8(2)/2014 (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470021

  3. Call for Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
      Call For Papers: Laser & Photon. Rev. 8(2)/2014 (page A13)

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470022

  4. Editorial Advisory Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial Advisory Board: Laser & Photon. Rev. 8(2)/2014 (page A14)

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470023

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Laser & Photon. Rev. 8(2)/2014 (pages A15–A19)

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470024

  6. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. Surface plasmon photodetectors and their applications (pages 197–220)

      Pierre Berini

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surface plasmon photodetectors are of vigorous current interest. Such detectors typically combine a metallic structure that supports surface plasmons with a photodetection structure based on internal photoemission or electron-hole pair creation. Detector architectures are highly varied, involving surface plasmons on planar metal waveguides, on metal gratings, on nano-particles, -islands, or -antennas, or involving plasmon-mediated transmission through one or many sub-wavelength holes in a metal film. Properties inherent to surface plasmons, such as sub-wavelength confinement and their ability to resonate on tiny metallic structures, are exploited to convey useful characteristics to detectors in addressing applications such as low-noise high-speed detection, single-plasmon detection, near- and mid-infrared imaging, photovoltaic solar energy conversion, and (bio)chemical sensing. The operating principles behind surface plasmon detectors are reviewed, the literature on the topic is surveyed, and avenues that appear promising are highlighted.

    2. Airy plasmons: non-diffracting optical surface waves (pages 221–232)

      Alexander E. Minovich, Angela E. Klein, Dragomir N. Neshev, Thomas Pertsch, Yuri S. Kivshar and Demetrios N. Christodoulides

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Airy beams represent an important class of non-diffracting waves which can be realized on a flat surface. Being generated in the form of surface-plasmon polaritons, such Airy plasmons demonstrate many remarkable properties: they do not diffract while propagating along parabolic trajectories, and they recover their shape after passing through obstacles. This paper reviews the basic physics of Airy plasmons in both paraxial and non-paraxial cases, and describes the experimental methods for generation of Airy surface waves on metal surfaces, including a control of their trajectories, as well as the interference of Airy plasmons and hot-spot generation. Many unusual properties of Airy plasmons can be utilized for useful applications, including plasmonic circuitry and surface tweezers. Picture: Observation of two colliding Airy plasmons.

    3. Fabrication methods of 3D periodic metallic nano/microstructures for photonics applications (pages 233–249)

      Md Muntasir Hossain and Min Gu

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Periodic metallic nano/microstructures have received a great a deal of attention in the photonics research community over the last few decades due to their intriguing optical properties. Three-dimensional metallic nano/microstructures such as metallic photonic crystals, metamaterials, and plasmonic devices possess unique characteristics of tailored thermal radiation, negative refraction and deep subwavelength confinement of light. In this article, the recent progress on the experimental methods for the realisation of three-dimensional periodic metallic and thin metal film coated dielectric nano/microstructures operating from optical to mid-infrared frequencies has been reviewed. Advancement of the state-of-the-art nanofabrication methods over the last few decades have led to the development of metallic nano/microstructures of diverse geometries, high resolution features and large scale production. The recent progress in the novel fabrication methods have inspired the development of functional and exciting photonic devices based on periodic metallic nano/microstructures with various applications in photonics including communications, photovoltaics, and biophotonics.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. You have free access to this content
  8. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining (pages 251–275)

      Feng Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Femtosecond-laser micromachining (also known as inscription or writing) has been developed as one of the most efficient techniques for direct three-dimensional microfabrication of transparent optical materials. In integrated photonics, by using direct writing of femtosecond/ultrafast laser pulses, optical waveguides can be produced in a wide variety of optical materials. With diverse parameters, the formed waveguides may possess different configurations. This paper focuses on crystalline dielectric materials, and is a review of the state-of-the-art in the fabrication, characterization and applications of femtosecond-laser micromachined waveguiding structures in optical crystals and ceramics. A brief outlook is presented by focusing on a few potential spotlights.

    2. Flying qubits and entangled photons (pages 276–290)

      Waldemar Unrau and Dieter Bimberg

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300050

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Efficient generation of polarized single photons or entangled photon pairs is crucial for the implementation of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Self organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are capable of emitting on demand one polarized photon or an entangled photon pair upon current injection. Highly efficient single-photon sources consist of a pin structure inserted into a microcavity where single electrons and holes are funneled into an InAs QD via a submicron AlOx aperture, leading to emission of single polarized photons with record purity of the spectrum and non-classicality of the photons. A new QD site-control technique is based on using the surface strain field of an AlOx current aperture below the QD.

      GaN/AlN QD based devices are promising to operate at room temperature and reveal a fine-structure splitting (FSS) depending inversely on the QD size. Large GaN/AlN QDs show disappearance of the FSS. Theory also suggests QDs grown on (111)-oriented GaAs substrates as source of entangled photon pairs.

  9. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. Dissipative plasmon-solitons in multilayer graphene (pages 291–296)

      Daria A. Smirnova, Ilya V. Shadrivov, Alexander I. Smirnov and Yuri S. Kivshar

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300173

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nonlinear properties of a multi-layer stack of graphene sheets are studied. It is predicted that such a structure may support dissipative plasmon-solitons generated and supported by an external laser radiation. Novel nonlinear equations describing spatial dynamics of the nonlinear plasmons driven by a plane wave in the Otto configuration are derived and the existence of single and multi-hump dissipative solitons in the graphene structure is predicted

    2. Near-room-temperature photon-noise-limited quantum well infrared photodetector (pages 297–302)

      Ming Rui Hao, Yao Yang, Shuai Zhang, Wen Zhong Shen, Harald Schneider and Hui Chun Liu

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300147

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      With the modern development of infrared laser sources such as broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers and frequency combs, applications of infrared laser spectroscopy are expected to become widespread. Consequently, convenient infrared detectors are needed, having properties such as fast response, high efficiency, and room-temperature operation. This work investigated conditions to achieve near-room-temperature photon-noise-limited performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), in particular the laser power requirement. Both model simulation and experimental verification were carried out. At 300 K, it is shown that the ideal performance can be reached for typical QWIP designs up to a detection wavelength of 10 µm. At 250 K, which is easily reachable with a thermoelectric Peltier cooler, the ideal performance can be reached up to 12 µm. QWIPs are therefore suitable for detection and sensing applications with devices operating up to or near room temperature.

    3. On the role of shot noise in carrier-envelope phase stabilization (pages 303–315)

      Bastian Borchers, Alexandria Anderson and Günter Steinmeyer

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300163

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper represents a systematic investigation of detection shot noise in carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilization. Numerical simulations are conducted to calculate the influence of shot noise in laser oscillators. These results are compared with experimental results for Ti:sapphire lasers. It is found that shot noise imposes a limitation for obtaining sub-100 mrad CEP jitters. Careful interferometer design is necessary to push this limit toward 10 mrad. In contrast to oscillator stabilization, shot noise appears to play a much more restrictive role in amplifier stabilization. Using spectral interferometry together with spectral broadening in sapphire, it already appears practically challenging to reach sub-100 mrad jitters. Adaption of the optical nonlinearity in the broadening step appears key to further improvements of the CEP jitter of amplified systems. We believe that these improvements open a perspective for currently unfeasible applications of CEP stabilized pulses. Moreover, our considerations can be easily adapted to CEP stabilization of other laser types beyond Ti:sapphire.

    4. A flexible blue light sensitive organic photodiode with high properties for the applications in low-voltage-control circuit and flexion sensors (pages 316–323)

      Dong Li, Xiaohui Liu, Guifang Dong, Lian Duan, Deqiang Zhang, Haoyan Zhao, Liduo Wang and Yong Qiu

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300213

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Low-voltage-control circuit is one of the most important parts of the modern electrical control system due to the avoidance of operation risk and easy automation. Here, based on a C60: m-MTDATA bulk heterojunction, a blue-light-sensitive organic photodiode (OPD) is explored for the development of flexible low-voltage-control circuit. The control of circuit under 2000 V high voltage is achieved. The influences of the organic-layer thickness, the donor/acceptor volume ratio and the matching of energy levels on the photocurrent are investigated. The maximum light/dark current ratio and current transfer ratio of 1.3 × 104 and 1.3% are achieved, respectively. The highest photoresponse is up to 130 mA/W, markedly higher than some commercial inorganic photodiodes. This device could also be used as flexion and mechanical force sensors with the current density changing under different bending conditions. Therefore, this sort of OPD has a promising application in low-voltage-controlled, high-voltage-endurable hands for intelligent robots.

    5. Beryllium Silicate, Be2SiO4 (phenakite) – a Novel Trigonal SRS-Active Crystal (pages 324–331)

      Alexander A. Kaminskii, Oliver Lux, Hanjo Rhee, Hans-Joachim Eichler, Hitoki Yoneda, Akita Shirakawa, Petra Becker and Ladislav Bohatý

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300223

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In single crystals of the beryllium silicate Be2SiO4 with trigonal symmetry inline image, known also as the mineral phenakite, χ(3)-nonlinear lasing by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is investigated. All observed Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing components are identified and ascribed to a single SRS-promoting vibration mode with ωSRS ≈876 cm−1. With picosecond single-wavelength pumping at one micrometer the generation of an octave-spanning Stokes and anti-Stokes comb is observed.

  10. Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Letters
    1. Editor's Choice

      You have free access to this content
      An ultra-black silicon absorber (pages L13–L17)

      Martin Steglich, Dennis Lehr, Stephan Ratzsch, Thomas Käsebier, Frank Schrempel, Ernst-Bernhard Kley and Andreas Tünnermann

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300142

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An ultra-black (A > 99%) broadband absorber concept on the basis of a needle-like silicon nanostructure called Black Silicon is proposed. The absorber comprises Black Silicon established by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) on a highly doped, degenerated silicon substrate. Improved absorbers also incorporate an additional oxide capping layer on the nanostructures and reach an absorptance of A > 99.5% in the range of 350 to 2000 nm and A ∼ 99.8% between 1000 and 1250 nm. Fabrication of the absorbers is consistent with CMOS standards and requires no lithography. (Picture: Kasper, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)

    2. You have free access to this content
      On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing (pages L18–L22)

      Jian Wang, Sailing He and Daoxin Dai

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300157

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer to simultaneously achieve mode- and polarization-division-(de)multiplexing is proposed and demonstrated experimentally on a silicon-on-insulator platform to improve the link capacity of an on-chip optical interconnect. The present hybrid (de)multiplexer has four channels for each polarization. A polarization beam splitter based on a three-waveguide coupler is used to combine/separate the fundamental modes of TE- and TM-polarizations (TE0 and TM0). Six asymmetric directional couplers are cascaded for (de)multiplexing the high-order modes (TE1, TE2, TE3, TM1, TM2, and TM3). The experimental results show all eight channels have low loss and low crosstalk (<−10 dB) over a ∼ 30 nm wavelength range.

    3. Low-loss aluminium nitride thin film for mid-infrared microphotonics (pages L23–L28)

      Pao Tai Lin, Hojoong Jung, Lionel C. Kimerling, Anu Agarwal and Hong X. Tang

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300176

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mid-infrared (mid-IR) microphotonic devices including (i) straight/bent waveguides and (ii) Y-junction beam splitters are developed on thin films of CMOS-compatible sputter deposited aluminum nitride (AlN)-on-silicon. An optical loss of 0.83 dB/cm at λ = 2.5 µm is achieved. In addition, an efficient mid-IR 50:50 beam splitter is demonstrated over 200 nm spectral bandwidth along with a <2% power difference between adjacent channels. With the inherent advantage of an ultra-wide transparent window (ultraviolent to mid-IR), our AlN mid-IR platform can enable broadband optical networks on a chip.

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