Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 4

Special Issue: Topical Issue: Advances in Subwavelength Photonics in China

July 2014

Volume 8, Issue 4

Pages A31–A44, 469–652, L47–L57, i–ii

Issue edited by: Sailing He, Bingkun Zhou

  1. Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. You have free access to this content
      Front Cover: Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers (Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4)/2014)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Subwavelength photonics is about generation, control and use of light with structures whose dimensions (or feature sizes) are at or below the wavelength of light.Much exciting progress has been made recently in this area. For decades, China has been taking optics and photonics very seriously as a key discipline. Massive resources have been invested in nanotechnologies, which facilitate greatly the advances in subwavelength photonics in China. This special issue contains three reviews, 14 original papers and two letters showing the state of the art of research in subwavelength photonics in China.

      (Picture: Yanxia Cui et al., 10.1002/lpor.201400026, pp. 495–520, in this issue)

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. You have free access to this content
      Inside Front Cover: Highly flexible broadband Terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate (Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4)/2014)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      With engineered multilayer metamaterials, a highly flexible, high efficiency and tunable quarter-wave plate is demonstrated in a broadband terahertz regime. Two layers of metasurfaces compensate with each to realize an achromatic π/2 phase retardance with high transmission, revealing a uniquemechanism to manipulate the phase retardance of terahertz radiation.

      (Picture: Longqing Cong et al., 10.1002/lpor.201300205, pp. 626–632, in this issue)

  3. Inside Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
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      Inside Back Cover: Plasmonic switch based on composite interference in metallic strip waveguides (Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4)/2014)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470042

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A plasmonic switch is implemented by two crossed metal strip waveguides with a Bragg grating as the beam splitter in the crossing. Based on a newly discovered composite interference, surface plasmons from two input ports can be selectively transferred into two outputs in a controlledmanner depending on the proportion of two kinds of interferences.

      (Picture: Yulin Wang et al., 10.1002/lpor.201300200, pp. L47–L51, in this issue)

  4. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. You have free access to this content
      Back Cover: Deep-subwavelength light confinement and transport in hybrid dielectric-loaded metal wedges (Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4)/2014)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470043

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hybrid dielectric-loaded metal wedges for deep-subwavelength light confinement and transport.

      The goal of confining light at a deep-subwavelength scale while retaining moderate attenuation remains one of the major challenges in nanophotonics. By using hybrid metal wedges covered with lowhigh-index dielectric claddings, the authors demonstrate strategies for high performance light transport at the sub-diffraction-limited level. Nanoscale mode size, reasonable propagation distance in conjunction with low waveguide crosstalk can be achieved simultaneously.

      (Picture: Yusheng Bian and Qihuang Gong, 10.1002/lpor.201300207, pp. 549–561, in this issue)

  5. Call for Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
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      Call For Papers: Laser & Photon. Rev. 8(4)/2014 (page A31)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470044

  6. Editorial Advisory Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial Advisory Board: Laser & Photon. Rev. 8(4)/2014 (page A32)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470045

  7. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Laser & Photon. Rev. 8(4)/2014 (pages A33–A40)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470046

  8. Editorial Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial Note (page A41)

      Guido Fuchs

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470047

  9. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. You have free access to this content
      Advances in subwavelength photonics in China (pages A43–A44)

      Sailing He and Bingkun Zhou

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470048

  10. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. Editor's Choice

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      Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities (pages 469–494)

      Chunxiang Xu, Jun Dai, Guangping Zhu, Gangyi Zhu, Yi Lin, Jitao Li and Zengliang Shi

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300127

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Zinc oxide (ZnO) is considered as an ideal candidate for ultraviolet (UV) lasers due to its unique advantages of wide direct bandgap and large exciton binding energy. Recently, whispering-gallery mode (WGM) lasing has attracted considerable attention for its high quality factor and low lasing threshold. The corresponding investigations have very important significance not only for fundamental scientific research but also for the potential applications in short-wavelength optoelectronic devices. In this paper, progress in ZnO microlasers is reviewed systematically. The fabrication methods for ZnO WGM microcavities are introduced first. Then the characteristics of single-photon and multiphoton pumped WGM lasing are presented. The lasing mechanisms on excitonic, electron–hole plasma and exciton–polariton lasing are reviewed in detail. Finally, recent advances in ZnO-based microlaser devices such as heterojunction laser diodes are explored. The further research challenges and some strategies are also indicated for the promising applications.

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      Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers (pages 495–520)

      Yanxia Cui, Yingran He, Yi Jin, Fei Ding, Liu Yang, Yuqian Ye, Shoumin Zhong, Yinyue Lin and Sailing He

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201400026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electromagnetic absorbers have drawn increasing attention in many areas. A series of plasmonic and metamaterial structures can work as efficient narrowband absorbers due to the excitation of plasmonic or photonic resonances, providing a great potential for applications in designing selective thermal emitters, biosensing, etc. In other applications such as solar-energy harvesting and photonic detection, the bandwidth of light absorbers is required to be quite broad. Under such a background, a variety of mechanisms of broadband/multiband absorption have been proposed, such as mixing multiple resonances together, exciting phase resonances, slowing down light by anisotropic metamaterials, employing high loss materials and so on.

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      Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications (pages 521–547)

      Jiao Wang, Tianrong Zhan, Gaoshan Huang, Paul K. Chu and Yongfeng Mei

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300040

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      Optical microcavities with whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) have large potential and, in particular, those with a tubular geometry have attracted increasing attention due to their special geometry and interesting properties such as trimmed resonant modes, simplicity as fluidic channels, three-dimensionally (3D) mode confinement, unique evanescent wave, and so on. Optical microcavities with the tubular geometry meet the challenge of assembly of conductive, semiconductive and insulating materials into a tubular geometry, thus spurring multifunctional applications to optofluidic devices, optical microdevices like microlasers, and bio/chemical sensors. Fabrication methods such as the fiber-drawing method, rolled-up nanotechnology, electrospin technique, and template-assistant method have been developed to address the various requirements. These tubular optical microcavities enable researchers to explore and construct novel optical microdevices for a wide range of potential applications. This review describes the tubular optical microcavities from the perspectives of theoretical consideration, optical characterization, and potential applications.

  11. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. Deep-subwavelength light confinement and transport in hybrid dielectric-loaded metal wedges (pages 549–561)

      Yusheng Bian and Qihuang Gong

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300207

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The goal of confining light at the deep-subwavelength scale while retaining moderate attenuation has been pursued for years in the field of plasmonics. However, few feasible configurations at present are excellent at balancing the tradeoff between confinement and loss. This work proposes to overcome the above limitation by using hybrid wedge structures, which consist of triangular metal wedges loaded with nanometric low/high-index dielectric claddings. Owing to the superior guiding properties of wedge plasmons in conjunction with high refractive index contrast near wedge tips, the modal sizes can be squeezed into significantly smaller spaces than those of their conventional wedge and planar hybrid counterparts, while simultaneously featuring propagation distances over tens of micrometers at telecommunication wavelengths. Studies on the evolution from a single metallic wedge to semiconductor–insulator–metal wedge(s) reveal strategies for continuous improvement of the optical performance. Discussions concerning practical issues including crosstalk and mode excitation have further elucidated their potential in building high-performance nanophotonic components.

    2. Manipulating transverse magnetic modes in waveguide using thin plasmonic materials (pages 562–568)

      Yadong Xu, Qiannan Wu and Huanyang Chen

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300185

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      Transverse magnetic modes propagate freely for any frequency in a parallel plated waveguide. Here, it is shown that when two thin plasmonic materials are attached to the metal walls of the waveguide, a bandgap emerges due to the excited surface plasmon polaritons. As the plasmonic materials become thin enough, a critical thickness is observed. For any width larger than such a value, the bandgap is fixed, otherwise a tunable bandgap can be achieved (different widths induce different bandgaps). For application, such a tunable bandgap system can be utilized to design a band-stop filter for terahertz frequencies with a high quality factor.

    3. Tunable graphene-based plasmonic waveguides: nano modulators and nano attenuators (pages 569–574)

      Jieer Lao, Jin Tao, Qi Jie Wang and Xu Guang Huang

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300199

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      A modulation principle and method, the gate-voltage-controlled mode-guiding switching/mode-cutoff mechanism, is proposed and numerically investigated to achieve the modulation/attenuation function. The propagating attenuation of the graphene 2D waveguide as a function of the Fermi level of the cladding is analyzed. Different modes with low or high attenuations in a wide attenuation range have been observed. The proposed structure avoids the patterning on graphene or substrate, thus diminishing the energy scattering on the edges. It also has the advantages of large modulation depth/attenuation range, wide bandwidth, and sub-micrometer chip-length with a nanoscale lateral section, which is promising for future graphene-based integrated photonic devices.

    4. β-NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion microcrystals with both high emission intensity and controlled morphology (pages 575–582)

      Wu Suli, Liu Ye, Chang Jie, Ning Yanhui and Zhang Shufen

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300203

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      Upconversion emission intensity and morphology are both important features of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ microcrystals. In this paper, myristic acid (MA) is selected as a novel stabilizing ligand to synthesize NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ through a facile hydrothermal method. Upconversion fluorescence spectra indicate that the emission intensity of product prepared with MA as ligand has increased dramatically compared with the sample prepared using commonly used oleic acid (OA) as ligand. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results display that the morphology of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ obtained using MA as ligand can be tuned from nanodisk, nanorod to nanotube. Especially, nanotube with clear caves can be prepared directly with proper concentration of base (NaOH). And powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals a relationship between the phase transformation process and the amount of NaOH. With increasing the amount of NaOH, the transition process of cubic phase to hexagonal phase is accelerated. The effect of F and OH on the fluorescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ are studied systematically. A gradual increase of the amount of NaF results in a regular increase of the emission intensity. On the contrary, the emission intensity decreases with increasing the amount of NaOH. In addition, reasonable explanations of the influence of F and OH on emission intensity are given as well.

    5. Trapped photons at a Dirac point: a new horizon for photonic crystals (pages 583–589)

      Kang Xie, Haiming Jiang, Allan D. Boardman, Yong Liu, Zhenhai Wu, Ming Xie, Ping Jiang, Quan Xu, Ming Yu and Lionel E. Davis

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300186

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      Optical cavities and waveguides are essential building blocks of many modern optical devices. They rely upon photonic bandgaps, or total internal reflections, to achieve field confinement. Here a new phenomenon is reported of wave localization that is attributable to neither of the above light guiding mechanisms. It is found that what is known as the Dirac point within a photonic band structure can play the role of a photonic bandgap with the establishment of field confinement. The new localized mode occurs at a Dirac frequency that is beyond any complete photonic bandgap, and exhibits a unique algebraic profile. The features of this new wave localization will add new capabilities and more flexibility to the design techniques of novel photonic components and photonic chip architectures.

    6. Broadband spin-controlled surface plasmon polariton launching and radiation via L-shaped optical slot nanoantennas (pages 590–595)

      Jing Yang, Shuxiang Zhou, Chuang Hu, Weiwei Zhang, Xiao Xiao and Jiasen Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300201

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      Broadband spin-controlled surface plasmon polariton (SPP) launching and radiation via L-shaped optical slot nanoantennas are proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The phase retardation and spectra overlapping between two resonant plasmon modes in the L-shaped optical slot nanoantenna lie at the origin of this effect. SPP launching in two perpendicular directions are controlled by the spin of the incident light. Broadband directional launching of SPPs is achieved and the extinction ratio keeps larger than 7 dB within a wavelength range of 150 nm. Furthermore, the photon spin of SPP radiation via the L-shaped optical slot nanoantennas is controlled by SPP propagation directions. These investigations provide a route for spin-controlled nanophotonic applications.

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      Controlling the radiation direction of propagating surface plasmons on silver nanowires (pages 596–601)

      Zhuoxian Wang, Hong Wei, Deng Pan and Hongxing Xu

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300215

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      Metal nanowires supporting propagating surface plasmons (SPs) can be used as nanowaveguides and nanoantennas for light manipulation beyond the diffraction limit. Here the control of the propagation and radiation of SPs on silver nanowires is investigated. By covering an Al2O3 layer onto a silver nanowire to change the local dielectric environment, the wave vector of the propagating SPs is increased. Thus, the radiation direction of SPs into the substrate is changed according to the phase matching condition, which is experimentally shown by Fourier imaging method. The radiation angle is sensitively dependent on the Al2O3 thickness. By depositing 1 nm Al2O3, the increase of the radiation angle can be close to 1 degree. These results show that dielectric-layer-coating provides a simple and effective method to control the propagation and radiation of SPs, which will be of great importance for designing plasmonic circuits, antennas and sensors based on silver nanowires.

    8. Direct laser writing of symmetry-broken spiral tapers for polarization-insensitive three-dimensional plasmonic focusing (pages 602–609)

      Jiafang Li, Jiajia Mu, Benli Wang, Wei Ding, Ju Liu, Honglian Guo, Wuxia Li, Changzhi Gu and Zhi-Yuan Li

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300206

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      Plasmonic focusing with metallic probes has attracted extensive studies due to its successful applications in advanced technologies such as near-field scanning optical microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Here the fabrication and characterization of a unique spiral metallic taper with polarization-insensitive three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic focusing properties are reported. Metallic probes with spiral corrugations are readily fabricated along the surfaces of the conical structures with a 3D direct laser writing method followed by a metal deposition process. With the broken structural symmetry induced by the spiral corrugations, plasmonic focusing is demonstrated under excitation of linearly polarized light with different polarization directions. Moreover, apertures with various sizes can be flexibly introduced at the apex of the conical probe structures with direct fabrication, which enables the observation of scattered light from waveguide modes, cutoff of waveguide modes and scattering from surfaces plasmons, respectively. The studies provide a novel methodology of design, realization, and application of 3D plasmonic focusing structures.

    9. A nano-plasmonic chip for simultaneous sensing with dual-resonance surface-enhanced Raman scattering and localized surface plasmon resonance (pages 610–616)

      Jiao Lin, Yuan Zhang, Jun Qian and Sailing He

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201400029

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      A dual-resonance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) chip which also serves as a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) refractive index sensor is proposed. The dual-resonance SERS chip can simultaneously enhance excitation and Stokes lines for Raman signals detection in a broad wavelength region with virtually no limitation. Thus, it is especially useful for Raman detection at long wave numbers and hyper Raman. The great performance of this chip relies on the highly independent tunability of the two localized plasmonic resonances from the optical to the near-infrared region and the strict “hot spot” match in space for both resonant wavelengths. Furthermore, Raman signals of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) from 500 cm−1 to 3300 cm−1 are measured in the experiments and an obvious superiority can be seen compared to a single-resonance SERS chip. In an addition, by using the subradiant magnetic dipole resonance, the LSPR refractive sensor gives a high sensitivity of 577 nm/RIU and high figure of merit (FoM) of 14.2. The experimental results are consistent with the simulated results. This dual-functional sensing chip opens a route for dual-modality detection of the concentration of some specific molecules.

    10. Surface plasmon resonance tunability in VO2/Au/VO2 thermochromic structure (pages 617–625)

      Huaijuan Zhou, Xun Cao, Meng Jiang, Shanhu Bao and Ping Jin

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300214

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      Nanometal–VO2 composite systems can exhibit a reversibly tunable localized surface plasmon effect under external temperature stimuli due to the temperature-sensitive dielectric function of the thermochromic VO2 thin film. In order to improve the tunability range and enhance the resonance shift magnitude (ΔλSPR), the VO2/Au/VO2 sandwich structure was deliberately designed here. The plasmonic and thermochromic characteristics of this structure were powerfully dependent on the gold deposition time (t). By varying this parameter, the resonance wavelength (λSPR) of the semiconductor phase can be regulated from the visible range (686 nm) to the near-infrared range (1482 nm) and a maximum ΔλSPR of 714 nm can be achieved at t = 3.5 min. This study may provide insights into plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles on a thermochromic VO2 matrix and offer potential applications in temperature-sensitive nanodevices.

    11. Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate (pages 626–632)

      Longqing Cong, Ningning Xu, Jianqiang Gu, Ranjan Singh, Jiaguang Han and Weili Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300205

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      Metamaterials offer exciting opportunities that enable precise control of light propagation, its intensity and phase by designing an artificial medium of choice. Inducing birefringence via engineered metamolecules presents a fascinating mechanism to manipulate the phase of electromagnetic waves and facilitates the design of polarimetric devices. In this paper, a high-efficiency, broadband, tunable and flexible quarter-wave plate based on a multilayer metamaterial is presented. Excellent achromatic π/2 phase retardance with high transmission is observed upon terahertz propagation through the quarter-wave plate. The calculated Stokes parameter represents the output polarization state numerically, indicating an excellent broadband conversion of linearly polarized light into circularly polarized light. The metamaterial-based quarter-wave plate demonstrated in this work could be an important step forward in the development of functional terahertz polarization conversion devices for practical applications.

    12. Spontaneous scaling down of femtosecond laser-induced apertures towards the 10-nanometer level: the excitation of quasistatic surface plasmons (pages 633–652)

      Min Huang and Zhizhan Xu

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300212

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      During ultrafast laser ablation on ZnO, the feature sizes of laser-induced apertures always decrease spontaneously with the pulse increasing and the crater extending, and may eventually approach an astonishing 10-nm scale, an ultradeep-subwavelength laser–solid interaction regime relating new physics in laser-induced damage. Based on the fundamental theories of plasmonics, it is proposed that the spontaneous scaling-down originates in the conversion of physical regimes of plasmonic interaction from the optical regime to the electrostatic regime, which arouses quasistatic SPs with interaction scales far beyond the diffraction limit and results in ultrafast, nonthermal ablation for extraordinary electrostatic field enhancement. Basically, “nanoscale” eliminates electromagnetic retardation effects greatly, brings an instantaneous respond to the incident field, and arouses electrostatic interactions with giant local-field enhancement, which may exert tremendous electrostatic forces on superficial electrons and ions and eventually lead to an “ultrafast” electrostatic nanoexplosion. Thus, the characteristics of simultaneous “nanoscale” and “ultrafast” arise spontaneously in femtosecond laser ablation.

  12. Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. Plasmonic switch based on composite interference in metallic strip waveguides (pages L47–L51)

      Yulin Wang, Tao Li, Lei Wang, Hao He, Lin Li, Qianjin Wang and Shining Zhu

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300200

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The optical switch is a key component in photonic integrations that plays an important role in routing the optical signal within a photonic circuit. In this work, compact switches were proposed and demonstrated based on the interference of surface plasmons polaritons (SPP) on free metal surfaces and in waveguides. Thanks to the constructive and destructive interferences implemented in strip waveguides, 2 × 2 ports switch devices with a small footprint were achieved with a maximum modulation depth of about 80%. Moreover, an interesting composite interference was observed and analyzed in the waveguide device, which is considered to arise from a transmission/reflection interference and field superposition interference. The samples of Bragg gratings and slits with different parameters were investigated in detail, which provided convincing evidence supporting the composite interference model. This revealed that the mechanism would possibly inspire new designs and instructions in nanophotonic integrations.

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      Plasmonic lattice solitons beyond the coupled-mode theory (pages L52–L57)

      Ying Xue, Fangwei Ye, Dumitru Mihalache, Nicolae C. Panoiu and Xianfeng Chen

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300202

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The existence and properties of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) supported by periodic arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a dielectric medium with Kerr nonlinearity are studied by solving the 3D Maxwell equations, and the conclusions are compared with the results predicted by a coupled-mode theory analysis. It is found that these two methods predict markedly different characteristics for the optical power of PLSs and its dependence on the separation distance between adjacent nanowires. In particular, the coupled-mode theory is found to be valid only when the distance between nanowires is larger than some characteristic length. The compensation of modal loss by a background optical gain is also studied and it is revealed that the gain coefficient required to balance the loss is much smaller than the loss parameter of the metallic components of the plasmonic array.

  13. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Call for Papers
    7. Editorial Advisory Board
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial Note
    10. Editorial
    11. Review Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letters
    14. Issue Information
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information: Laser & Photon. Rev. 8(4)/2014 (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201470049

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