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A clinical instrument for combined raman spectroscopy-optical coherence tomography of skin cancers

Authors

  • Chetan A. Patil PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 137235
    2. Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, Tennessee 37212
    • Station B, Box 351631, Nashville, TN 37235.
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  • Harish Kirshnamoorthi BA,

    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 137235
    2. College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235
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  • Darrel L. Ellis MD,

    1. Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, Tennessee 37212
    2. Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235
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  • Ton G. van Leeuwen PhD,

    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    2. Biophysical Engineering Group, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
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  • Anita Mahadevan-Jansen PhD

    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 137235
    2. Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, Tennessee 37212
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Abstract

Background and Objective

The current standard for diagnosis of skin cancers is visual inspection followed by biopsy and histopathology. This process can be invasive, subjective, time consuming, and costly. Optical techniques, including Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Raman Spectroscopy (RS), have been developed to perform non-invasive characterization of skin lesions based on either morphological or biochemical features of disease. The objective of this work is to report a clinical instrument capable of both morphological and biochemical characterization of skin cancers with RS-OCT.

Materials and Methods

The portable instrument utilizes independent 785 nm RS and 1,310 nm OCT system backbones. The two modalities are integrated in a 4″ (H) × 5″(W) × 8″(L) clinical probe. The probe enables sequential acquisition of co-registered OCT and RS data sets. The axial response of the RS collection in the skin was estimated using scattering phantoms. In addition, RS-OCT data from patients with cancerous and non-cancerous lesions are reported.

Results

The RS-OCT instrument is capable of screening areas as large as 15 mm (transverse) by 2.4 mm (in depth) at up to 8 frames/second with OCT, and identifying locations to perform RS. RS signal is collected from a 44 µm transverse spot through a depth of approximately 530 µm. RS-OCT data sets from a superficial scar and a nodular BCC are reported to demonstrate the clinical potential of the instrument.

Conclusion

The RS-OCT instrument reported here is capable of morphological and biochemical characterization of cancerous skin lesions in a clinical setting. OCT can visualize microstructural irregularities and perform an initial morphological analysis of the lesion. The images can be used to guide acquisition of biochemically specific Raman spectra. The two data sets can then be evaluated with respect to one another to take advantage of the mutually complimentary nature of RS and OCT. Lasers Surg. Med. 42:143–151, 2011 © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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