Background and Objectives
The fiberoptic microneedle device (FMD) seeks to leverage advantages of both laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) and convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to increase volumetric dispersal of locally infused chemotherapeutics through sub-lethal photothermal heat generation. This study focused on determination of photothermal damage thresholds with 1,064 nm light delivered through the FMD into in vivo rat models.
Materials and Methods
FMDs capable of co-delivering laser energy and fluid agents were fabricated through a novel off-center splicing technique involving fusion of a multimode fiberoptic to light-guiding capillary tubing. FMDs were positioned at a depth of 2.5 mm within the cerebrum of male rats with fluoroptic temperature probes placed within 1 mm of the FMD tip. Irradiation (without fluid infusion) was conducted at laser powers of 0 (sham), 100, 200, 500, or 750 mW. Evans blue-serum albumin conjugated complex solution (EBA) and laser energy co-delivery were performed in a second set of preliminary experiments.
Maximum, steady-state temperatures of 38.7 ± 1.6 and 42.0 ± 0.9°C were measured for the 100 and 200 mW experimental groups, respectively. Histological investigation demonstrated needle insertion damage alone for sham and 100 mW irradiations. Photothermal damage was detected at 200 mW, although observable thermal damage was limited to a small penumbra of cerebral cortical microcavitation and necrosis that immediately surrounded the region of FMD insertion. Co-delivery of EBA and laser energy presented increased volumetric dispersal relative to infusion-only controls.
Fluoroptic temperature sensing and histopathological assessments demonstrated that a laser power of 100 mW results in sub-lethal brain hyperthermia, and the optimum, sub-lethal target energy range is likely 100–200 mW. The preliminary FMD–CED experiments confirmed the feasibility of augmenting fluid dispersal using slight photothermal heat generation, demonstrating the FMD's potential as a way to increase the efficacy of CED in treating MG. Lasers Surg. Med. 45: 167–174, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.