• 1
    Kim W, Brown R, Terrault N, El-Serag H. Burden of liver disease in the United States: Summary of a workshop. Hepatology 2002; 36: 227.
  • 2
    Samuel D, Ichai P, Feray C, Saliba F, Azoulay D, Arulnaden JL, et al. Neurological improvement during bioartificial liver sessions in patients with acute liver failure awaiting transplantation. Transplantation 2002; 73: 257.
  • 3
    Ellis A, Highes R, Wendon J, et al. Pilot-controlled trial of the extracorporeal liver assist device in acute liver failure. Hepatology 1996; 24: 1446.
  • 4
    Watanabe F, Mullon CJ-P, Hewitt W, et al. Clinical experience with a bioartificial liver (BAL) in the treatment of severe liver failure: A phase I clinical trial. Ann Surg 1997; 225: 484.
  • 5
    Patzer J, Kramer D, Mazariegos G, Lopez RC, Giraldo M, Grogan TA, et al. Clinical Safety evaluation of Excorp Medical Inc. bioartificial liver support system (BLSS). ASAIO J 2000; 46: 241A.
  • 6
    Demetriou A, Brown R, Busuttil R, et al. Prospective, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial of a bioartificial liver in treating acute liver failure. Ann Surg 2004; 239: 660.
  • 7
    Uchino J, Tsuburaya T, Kumagai F, et al. A hybrid bioartificial liver composed of multiplated hepatocyte monolayers. ASAIO Trans 1988; 34: 972.
  • 8
    Margulis M, Erukhimov E, Andreiman L, Viksna L. Temporary organ substitution by hemoperfusion through suspension of active donor hepatocytes in a total complex of intensive therapy in patients with acute hepatic insufficiency. Resuscitation 1989; 18: 85.
  • 9
    Matsumura K, Guevara G, Huston H, et al. Hybrid bioartificial liver in hepatic failure: Preliminary clinical report. Surgery 1987; 101: 99.
  • 10
    Nyberg S, Remmel R, Mann H, Peshwa MV, Hu W-S, Cerra FB. Primary hepatocytes outperform Hep G2 cells as the source of biotransformation functions in a bioartificial liver. Ann Surg 1994; 220: 59.
  • 11
    Matsushita T, Amiot B, Hardin J, Platt J, Nyberg S. Membrane pore size impacts performance of a xenogeneic bioartificial liver. Transplantation 2003; 76: 1299.
  • 12
    Patience C, Takeuchi Y, Weiss R. Infection of human cells by an endogenous retrovirus of pigs. Nat Med 1997; 3: 282.
  • 13
    Sussman NL, Gislason GT, Conlin CA, Kelly JH. The Hepatix extracorporeal liver assist device: Initial clinical experience. Artif Organs 1994; 18: 390.
  • 14
    Patience C, Patton G, Takeuchi Y, et al. No evidence of pig DNA or retroviral infection in patients with short-term extracorporeal connection to pig kidneys. Lancet 1998; 352: 699.
  • 15
    Paradis K, Langjord G, Long Z, et al. Search for cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus in patients treated with living pig tissue. Science 1999; 285: 1236.
  • 16
    Pitkin Z, Switzer W, Chapman L, et al. An interim analysis of PERV infectivity in 74 patients treated with a bioartificial liver in a prospective, randomized, multicenter controlled trial [abstract]. Hepatology 2001; 34: 249A.
  • 17
    Asano K, Koide N, Tsuji T. Ultrastructure of multicellular spheroids formed in the primary culture of adult rat hepatocytes. J Clin Electron Microscopy 1989; 22: 243.
  • 18
    Wu F, Friend J, Remmel R, Cerra F, Hu W-S. Enhanced cytochrome P450 IA1 activity of self-assembled rat hepatocyte spheroids. Cell Transplant 1999; 8: 233.
  • 19
    Narayanan R, Rink A, Beattie C, Hu W-S. Differential gene expression analysis during porcine hepatocyte spheroid formation. Mamm Genome 2002; 13: 515-523.
  • 20
    Neuzil DF, Rozga J, Moscioni AD, et al. Use of a novel bioartificial liver in a patient with acute liver insufficiency. Surgery 1993; 113: 340.
  • 21
    Sielaff TD, Hu MY, Amiot B, et al. Gel-entrapment bioartificial liver therapy in galactosamine hepatitis. J Surg Res 1995; 59: 179.
  • 22
    Patzer J II, Mazariegos G, Lopez R, et al. Novel bioartificial liver support system: preclinical evaluation. Annals N Y Acad Sci 1999; 875: 340.
  • 23
    Sielaff TD, Hu MY, Sridhar R, et al. A technique for porcine hepatocyte harvest and description of differentiated metabolic functions in static culture. Transplantation 1995; 59: 1459.
  • 24
    Jauregui H, Hayner N, Driscoll J, Williams-Holland R, Lipsky M, Galletti P. Trypan blue dye uptake and lactate dehydrogenase in adult rat hepatocytes— freshly isolated cells, cell suspension, and primary monolayer cultures. In Vitro 1981; 81: 1100.
  • 25
    Yagi T, Hardin J, Miyoshi H, Gores G, Nyberg S. Caspase inhibition reduces apoptotic death of cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes. Hepatology 2001; 33: 1432.
  • 26
    Borson N, Strausbauch M, Wettstein P, Oda R, Johnston S, Landers J. Direct quantitation of RNA transcripts by competitive single-tube RT-PCR and capillary electrophoresis. BioTechniques 1998; 25: 130.
  • 27
    Borson N, Strausbauch M, Kennedy R, Oda R, Landers J, Wettstein P. Temporal sequence of transcription of perforin, Fas ligand, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha genes in rejecting skin allografts. Transplantation 1999; 67: 672.
  • 28
    Rinaldo P, Hahn S, Matern D. Inborn errors of amino acid, organic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. In: BurtisC, AshwoodE, BrunsD, eds. Elsevier: New York. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. 4th ed. 2005.
  • 29
    Hosagrahara VP, Hansen L, Remmel RP. Induction of the metabolism of midazolam by rifampin in cultured porcine hepatocytes: preliminary evidence for CYP3A isoforms in pigs. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27: 1512.
  • 30
    Shinji T, Koide N, Tsuji T. Glycosaminoglycans partially substitute for proteoglycans in spheroid formation of adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Cell Struct Funct 1988; 13: 179.
  • 31
    Lazar A, Peshwa M, Wu F, Chi C-M, Cerra F, Hu W-S. Formation of porcine hepatocyte spheroids for use in a bioartificial liver. Cell Transplant 1995; 4: 259.
  • 32
    Sakai Y, Naruse K, Nagashima I, Tetsuichior M, Suzuki M. A new bioartificial liver using porcine hepatocyte spheroids in high-cell-density suspension perfusion culture: In vitro performance in synthesized culture medium and in 100% human plasma. Cell Transplant 1999; 8: 531.
  • 33
    Carrillo G, Gendzekhadze K, Ruiz M, et al. Multiaggregate hepatocyte (HP) spheroids in the hepato-cellular transplant: structural, functional and metabolic characterization. Transplant Proc 2001; 33: 660.
  • 34
    Koide N, Sakaguchi K, Koide Y, Asano K, Kawaguchi M, Matsushima H, Takenami T, Shinji T, Mori M, Tsuji T. Formation of multicellular spheroids composed of adult rat hepatocytes in dishes with positively charged surfaces and under other nonadherent environments. Exp Cell Res 1990; 186: 227.
  • 35
    Tzanakakis E, Hansen L, Hu W-S. The role of actin filaments and microtubules in hepatocyte spheroid self-assembly. Cell MotilCytoskeleton 2001; 48: 175.
  • 36
    Nyberg S, Sreekumar R, Yagi T, Hardin J, Gores G, Charlton M. Impact of cryopreservation on hepatocyte gene expression. Liver Transpl 2001; 7: C.
  • 37
    Basile A, Jones E, Skolnick P. The pathogenesis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy: evidence for the involvement of benzodiazepine receptor ligands. Pharm Rev 1991; 43: 27.
  • 38
    Seddon T, Michelle I, Chenery R. Comparative drug metabolism of diazepam in hepatocytes isolated from man, rat, monkey and dog. Biochem Pharmacol 1989; 38: 1657.
  • 39
    Liu Z, Short J, Rose A, et al. The simultaneous determination of diazepam and its three metabolites in dog plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2001; 26: 321.
  • 40
    Yasumori T, Nagata K, Yang S, et al. Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism of diazepam in human and rat: involvement of human CYP2C in N-demethylation in the substrate concentration-dependent manner. Pharmacogenetics 1993; 3: 291.
  • 41
    Matsushita T, Yagi T, Hardin J, et al. Apoptotic cell death and function of cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes in a bioartificial liver. Cell Transplant 2003; 12: 109.
  • 42
    Nyberg S, Shatford R, Peshwa M, White J, Cerra F, Hu W-S. Evaluation of a hepatocyte-entrapment hollow fiber bioreactor: A potential bioartificial liver. Biotechnol Bioeng 1993; 41: 194.
  • 43
    Ferenci P, Lockwood A, Mullen K, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy—definition, nomenclature, diagnosis, and quantification: Final report of the working party at the 11th world congresses of gastroenterology, Vienna, 1998. Hepatology 2002; 35: 716.
  • 44
    Jones EA, Lavini C. Is cerebral edema a component of the syndrome of hepatic encephalopathy? Hepatology 2002; 35: 1270.
  • 45
    Clemmesen J, Larsen F, Kondrug J, Hansen B, Ott P. Cerebral herniation in patients with acute liver failure is correlated with arterial ammonia concentration. Hepatology 1999; 29: 648.