• 1
    Hart DN. Dendritic cells: unique leukocyte populations which control the primary immune response. Blood 1997; 90: 32453287.
  • 2
    Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 1998; 392: 245252.
  • 3
    Morelli AE, Thomson AW. Dendritic cells: regulators of alloimmunity and opportunities for tolerance induction. Immunol Rev 2003; 196: 125146.
  • 4
    Larsen CP, Morris PJ, Austyn JM. Migration of dendritic leukocytes from cardiac allografts into host spleens. A novel pathway for initiation of rejection. J Exp Med 1990; 171: 307314.
  • 5
    Saiki T, Ezaki T, Ogawa M, Matsuno K. Trafficking of host- and donor-derived dendritic cells in rat cardiac transplantation: allosensitization in the spleen and hepatic nodes. Transplantation 2001; 71: 18061815.
  • 6
    Liu Y, Hamrah P, Zhang Q, Taylor AW, Dana MR. Draining lymph nodes of corneal transplant hosts exhibit evidence for donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-positive dendritic cells derived from MHC class II-negative grafts. J Exp Med 2002; 195: 259268.
  • 7
    Hamrah P, Huq SO, Liu Y, Zhang Q, Dana MR. Corneal immunity is mediated by heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells. J Leukoc Biol 2003; 74: 172178.
  • 8
    Qian S, Demetris AJ, Murase N, Rao AS, Fung JJ, Starzl TE. Murine liver allograft transplantation: tolerance and donor cell chimerism. Hepatology 1994; 19: 916924.
  • 9
    Woo J, Lu L, Rao AS, Li Y, Subbotin V, Starzl TE, Thomson AW. Isolation, phenotype, and allostimulatory activity of mouse liver dendritic cells. Transplantation 1994; 58: 484491.
  • 10
    Matsuno K, Ezaki T, Kudo S, Uehara Y. A life stage of particle-laden rat dendritic cells in vivo: their terminal division, active phagocytosis, and translocation from the liver to the draining lymph. J Exp Med 1996; 183: 18651878.
  • 11
    O'Connell PJ, Morelli AE, Logar AJ, Thomson AW. Phenotypic and functional characterization of mouse hepatic CD8 alpha+ lymphoid-related dendritic cells. J Immunol 2000; 165: 795803.
  • 12
    Trobonjaca Z, Leithauser F, Moller P, Schirmbeck R, Reimann J. Activating immunity in the liver. I. Liver dendritic cells (but not hepatocytes) are potent activators of IFN-gamma release by liver NKT cells. J Immunol 2001; 167: 14131422.
  • 13
    Lau AH, Thomson AW. Dendritic cells and immune regulation in the liver. Gut 2003; 52: 307314.
  • 14
    Lu L, Woo J, Rao AS, Li Y, Watkins SC, Qian S, Starzl TE, et al. Propagation of dendritic cell progenitors from normal mouse liver using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and their maturational development in the presence of type-1 collagen. J Exp Med 1994; 179: 18231834.
  • 15
    Abe M, Akbar SM, Horiike N, Onji M. Induction of cytokine production and proliferation of memory lymphocytes by murine liver dendritic cell progenitors: role of these progenitors as immunogenic resident antigen-presenting cells in the liver. J Hepatol 2001; 34: 6167.
  • 16
    Chiang YJ, Lu L, Fung JJ, Qian S. Liver-derived dendritic cells induce donor-specific hyporesponsiveness: use of sponge implant as a cell transplant model. Cell Transplant 2001; 10: 343350.
  • 17
    Morelli AE, O'Connell PJ, Khanna A, Logar AJ, Lu L, Thomson AW. Preferential induction of Th1 responses by functionally mature hepatic (CD8alpha− and CD8alpha+) dendritic cells: association with conversion from liver transplant tolerance to acute rejection. Transplantation 2000; 69: 26472657.
  • 18
    Steptoe RJ, Fu F, Li W, Drakes ML, Lu L, Demetris AJ, et al. Augmentation of dendritic cells in murine organ donors by Flt3 ligand alters the balance between transplant tolerance and immunity. J Immunol 1997; 159: 54835491.
  • 19
    Prickett TC, McKenzie JL, Hart DN. Characterization of interstitial dendritic cells in human liver. Transplantation 1988; 46: 754761.
  • 20
    Goddard S, Youster J, Morgan E, Adams DH. Interleukin-10 secretion differentiates dendritic cells from human liver and skin. Am J Pathol 2004; 164: 511519.
  • 21
    Tanis W, Mancham S, Binda R, Janssen HL, Bezemer G, IJzermans JN, et al. Human hepatic lymph nodes contain normal numbers of mature myeloid dendritic cells but few plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Clin Immunol 2004; 110: 8188.
  • 22
    Kwekkeboom J, Boor PPC, Sen E, Kusters JG, Drexhage HA, de Jong EC, et al. Human liver myeloid dendritic cells maturate in vivo into effector DC with a poor allogeneic T-cell stimulatory capacity. Transpl Proc 2005; 37: 1516.
  • 23
    Jonsson JR, Hogan PG, Balderson GA, Ooi LL, Lynch SV, Strong RW, Powell EE. Human liver transplant perfusate: an abundant source of donor liver-associated leukocytes. Hepatology 1997; 26: 11111114.
  • 24
    Angelov GS, Tomkowiak M, Marcais A, Leverrier Y, Marvel J. Flt3 ligand-generated murine plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells differ in their capacity to prime naive CD8 T cells and to generate memory cells in vivo. J Immunol 2005; 175: 189195.
  • 25
    Dzionek A, Fuchs A, Schmidt P, Cremer S, Zysk M, Miltenyi S, et al. BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4: three markers for distinct subsets of dendritic cells in human peripheral blood. J Immunol 2000; 165: 60376046.
  • 26
    Mehal WZ, Azzaroli F, Crispe IN. Immunology of the healthy liver: old questions and new insights. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 250260.
  • 27
    MacDonald KP, Munster DJ, Clark GJ, Dzionek A, Schmitz J, Hart DN. Characterization of human blood dendritic cell subsets. Blood 2002; 100: 45124520.
  • 28
    Lipscomb MF, Masten BJ. Dendritic cells: immune regulators in health and disease. Physiol Rev 2002; 82: 97130.
  • 29
    de Saint-Vis B, Vincent J, Vandenabeele S, Vanbervliet B, Pin JJ, Ait-Yahia S, et al. A novel lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein, DC-LAMP, induced upon DC maturation, is transiently expressed in MHC class II compartment. Immunity 1998; 9: 325336.
  • 30
    Saeki H, Moore AM, Brown MJ, Hwang ST. Cutting edge: secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC) and CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) participate in the emigration pathway of mature dendritic cells from the skin to regional lymph nodes. J Immunol 1999; 162: 24722475.
  • 31
    O'Rourke MG, Johnson M, Lanagan C, See J, Yang J, Bell JR, et al. Durable complete clinical responses in a phase I/II trial using an autologous melanoma cell/dendritic cell vaccine. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2003; 52: 387395.
  • 32
    Jiang S, Herrera O, Lechler RI. New spectrum of allorecognition pathways: implications for graft rejection and transplantation tolerance. Curr Opin Immunol 2004; 16: 550557.
  • 33
    Steptoe RJ, Li W, Fu F, O'Connell PJ, Thomson AW. Trafficking of APC from liver allografts of Flt3L-treated donors: augmentation of potent allostimulatory cells in recipient lymphoid tissue is associated with a switch from tolerance to rejection. Transpl Immunol 1999; 7: 5157.
  • 34
    Hackstein H, Thomson AW. Dendritic cells: emerging pharmacological targets of immunosuppressive drugs. Nat Rev Immunol 2004; 4: 2434.