The aim of our study was to determine the outcomes of liver transplant recipients receiving either lamivudine (LAM) monotherapy or LAM combined with low-dose intramuscular (IM) hepatitis B Immunoglobulin (HBIG) therapy. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients that had had liver transplantation in a single center for HBV-related liver diseases from December 1999 to June 2004. A total of 165 patients received LAM monotherapy (51 patients) or combined prophylaxis (114 patients) post-liver transplantation (LT) with a mean follow-up of 20.13 months. Hepatitis B relapsed in 21 patients of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers who received LAM monotherapy, with a 1- and 2-yr actuarial risk of 27.4% and 39.7%. Recurrence occurred in 16 patients of 114 patients receiving the combined prophylaxis, with a 1- and 2-yr recurrence rate of 13.5% and 15.2% (P= 0.024). A total of 25 cases (67.6%) with YMDD mutants were detected in all the 37 patients, 14 cases (66.7%) in the monotherapy group and 11 cases (68.8%) in the combination group. In conclusion, LAM and low-dose intramuscular HBIG treatment demonstrates a better result than LAM monotherapy, as prophylaxis against post-LT reinfection of the graft, but the safety and efficacy as a substitution for high-dose intravenous HBIG with LAM needs to be investigated further. Liver Transpl 12:253–258, 2006. © 2006 AASLD.