The shortage of cadaveric donor organs has led to the use of living donors and marginal cadaveric donors. To date, there have been only 2 reports on the use of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive liver grafts. Here we describe the 5-yr posttransplantation sequence of a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive recipient who received an HBsAg-positive living donor liver graft. A 43-yr-old HBV-positive patient with hepatorenal syndrome received a living donor liver graft in October 2000 from a 27-yr-old HBsAg-positive carrier with no clinical evidence of HBV infection other than the serologic markers. The recipient recovered slowly after liver transplantation (LT). Recipient serum HBsAg was continuously positive despite anti-HBV therapy with high-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine. The patient was also treated with famciclovir and interferon; to date, a final regimen of lamivudine and adefovir has kept liver function stable for 20 months. The recipient has lived for 64 months after transplantation. The donor has not revealed any clinical evidence of active hepatitis during follow-up. In conclusion, our result implicates that a recipient of liver graft from an HBsAg-positive carrier may survive for a long period following antiviral therapy with lamivudine and adefovir. Considering this living donor case and previously reported cases, the use of an HBsAg-positive cadaveric liver graft may deserve attention when no other donor is available. Liver Transpl 12:993–997, 2006. © 2006 AASLD.