Hepatic steatosis is a recognized problem in patients after orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). However, de novo development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been well described. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of de novo NAFLD after OLT. A retrospective analysis was performed on 68 OLT patients with donor liver biopsies and posttransplantation liver biopsies. Individual medical charts were reviewed for demographics, indication for OLT, serial histology reports, genotypes for hepatitis C, comorbid conditions, and medications. Liver biopsies were reviewed blindly and graded according to the Brunt Scoring System. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the risk factors for developing NAFLD. The interval time from OLT to subsequent follow-up liver biopsy was 28 ± 18 months. A total of 12 patients (18%) developed de novo NAFLD, and 6 (9%) developed de novo NASH. The regression model indicated that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) was associated with a reduced risk of developing NAFLD after OLT (odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.010-0.92; P = 0.042). Increase in body mass index (BMI) of greater than 10% after OLT was associated with a higher risk of developing NAFLD (odds ratio, 19.38; 95% confidence interval, 3.50-107.40; P = 0.001). In conclusion, de novo NAFLD is common in the post-OLT setting, with a significant association with weight gain after transplant. The use of an ACE-I may reduce the risk of developing post-OLT NAFLD. Liver Transpl, 2006. © 2006 AASLD.