Graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) is a rare, serious complication of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We have treated 5 patients to date with GVHD after OLT. A total of 78 patients worldwide have been reported to have experienced this complication. The means by which GVHD after OLT has been managed is guided by experience with the more common GVHD that occurs after stem cell transplantation. However, despite the use of various treatment modalities, the mortality of GVHD after OLT remains high. This case series and review of the literature demonstrates that successful resolution of GVHD after OLT cannot be expected with the use of those modalities that have been tried to date. It is imperative that new treatments be applied to GVHD after OLT in order to improve the prognosis of patients with this diagnosis. Liver Transpl 13:1092–1099, 2007. © 2007 AASLD.