The currently available indication criteria of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have high prognostic power but insufficient discriminatory power. On the basis of single-center results from 221 HCC patients undergoing LDLT, we modified the indication criteria for LDLT to expand recipient selection without increasing the posttransplant recurrence of HCC. Our expanded criteria, based on explant pathology, were largest tumor diameter ≤ 5 cm, HCC number ≤ 6, and no gross vascular invasion. One hundred eighty-six of the 221 HCC patients (84.2%) met our criteria, 10% and 5.5% more than those that met the Milan and University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) criteria, respectively. The overall 5-year patient survival rates were 76.0% and 44.5% within and beyond the Milan criteria, respectively; 75.9% and 36.4% within and beyond the UCSF criteria, respectively; and 76.3% and 18.9% within and beyond our expanded criteria, respectively. Although these 3 sets of criteria had similar prognostic power, our expanded criteria had the highest discriminatory power. Thus, these expanded criteria for LDLT eligibility of HCC patients broaden the indications for patient selection and can more accurately identify patients who will benefit from LDLT. Liver Transpl 14:935–945, 2008. © 2008 AASLD.