Transplantation-mediated alloimmune thrombocytopenia (TMAT) is donor-derived thrombocytopenia following solid-organ transplantation. To date, no clear consensus on the appropriateness of organ utilization from cadaver donors with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) has emerged. Herein is reported a devastating case of TMAT following liver transplantation utilizing an allograft from a donor with ITP that resulted in allograft failure. The literature is reviewed in this context to propose preliminary guidelines regarding utilization of allografts from cadaver donors with a history of ITP. Liver Transpl 2008;14:1803–1809. © 2008 AASLD.