- 1Prophylaxis using the combination of lamivudine and high-dose intravenous hepatitis B immunoglobulin (approximately 10,000 IU monthly) reduces the long-term risk of recurrence of hepatitis B in hepatitis B surface antigen–positive transplant recipients to 5% to 10%. However, this therapy is expensive and inconvenient for patients.
- 2Recent studies have shown that similar results can be obtained, at far less cost, with much lower doses of intramuscular hepatitis B immune globulin (400-800 IU monthly) in combination with pretransplant and posttransplant lamivudine therapy.
- 3The development of lamivudine resistance pre-transplant can lead to hepatic decompensation and increases the risk of posttransplant recurrence in patients receiving hepatitis B immune globulin/lamivudine prophylaxis. Newer nucleos(t)ide analogues with lower resistance rates such as entecavir, adefovir, and tenofovir should therefore replace lamivudine in hepatitis B prophylaxis.
- 4Combination therapy with these newer agents and low-dose intramuscular hepatitis B immune globulin is likely to be the most cost effective hepatitis B immune globulin–containing regimen for the prevention of hepatitis B recurrence post-transplant.
- 5Some form of hepatitis B virus prophylaxis needs be continued indefinitely post-transplant. However, the use of antivirals with very low rates of drug resistance will make it possible to stop hepatitis B immune globulin therapy in many patients currently receiving hepatitis B immune globulin/nucleos(t)ide combination therapy.
Liver Transpl 14:S15–S22, 2008. © 2008 AASLD.