More than 30 years after the first hepatocyte transplant to treat the Gunn rat, the animal model for Crigler-Najjar syndrome, there are still a number of impediments to hepatocyte transplantation. Numerous animal models are still used in work aimed at improving hepatocyte engraftment and/or long-term function. Although other cell sources, particularly hepatic and extrahepatic stem cells, are being explored, adult hepatocytes remain the cells of choice for the treatment of liver diseases by cell therapy. In recent years, diverse approaches have been developed in various animal models to enhance hepatocyte transduction and amplification in vitro and cell engraftment and functionality in vivo. They have led to significant progress in hepatocyte transplantation for the treatment of patients with metabolic diseases and for bridging patients with acute injury until their own livers regenerate. This review presents and considers the results of this work with a special emphasis on procedures that might be clinically applicable. Liver Transpl 15:7–14, 2009. © 2008 AASLD.