The outcome of liver transplantation in China remains speculative. From 1998 to 2007, 177 adult Hong Kong patients underwent liver transplantation in China and were subsequently followed up at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. One hundred six (59.9%) patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The grafts were probably derived from uncontrolled non–heart-beating donors. The 1-month mortality rate was 4.0%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 73.9%, 59.0%, and 53.9%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for non-HCC, HCC, HCC (within the Milan criteria), and HCC (beyond the Milan criteria) patients were 66.3%, 44%, 58%, and 26.2%, respectively. The long-term survival was compromised by the high incidence of HCC recurrence and graft failure secondary to diffuse intrahepatic biliary strictures. The overall survival rate of the entire group was lower than that of the patients receiving deceased donor liver grafts at Queen Mary Hospital in the same period. For non-HCC patients, however, the 5-year survival rate of 66.3% was comparable to that of recent reports from the Western world. Liver Transpl 15:544–550, 2009. © 2009 AASLD.