• 1
    Rubin RH. Overview: pathogenesis of fungal infections in the organ transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis 2002; 4( Suppl 3): 1217.
  • 2
    Biancofiore G, Bindi ML, Baldassarri R, Romanelli AM, Catalano G, Filipponi F, et al. Antifungal prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Transpl Int 2002; 15: 341347.
  • 3
    Singh N. Fungal infections in the recipients of solid organ transplantation. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2003; 17: 113134, viii.
  • 4
    Winston DJ, Busuttil RW. Randomized controlled trial of oral itraconazole solution versus intravenous/oral fluconazole for prevention of fungal infections in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2002; 74: 688695.
  • 5
    Singh N, Wagener MM, Marino IR, Gayowski T. Trends in invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients: correlation with evolution in transplantation practices. Transplantation 2002; 73: 6367.
  • 6
    Fortun J, Martin-Davila P, Montejo M, Munoz P, Cisneros JM, Ramos A, et al. Prophylaxis with caspofungin for invasive fungal infections in high-risk liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2009; 87: 424435.
  • 7
    Singh N, Paterson DL. Aspergillus infections in transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005; 18: 4469.
  • 8
    Snydman DR. Epidemiology of infections after solid-organ transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33( Suppl 1): S5S8.
  • 9
    Briegel J, Forst H, Spill B, Haas A, Grabein B, Haller M, et al. Risk factors for systemic fungal infections in liver transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1995; 14: 375382.
  • 10
    Castaldo P, Stratta RJ, Wood RP, Markin RS, Patil KD, Shaefer MS, et al. Fungal disease in liver transplant recipients: a multivariate analysis of risk factors. Transplant Proc 1991; 23: 15171519.
  • 11
    Collins LA, Samore MH, Roberts MS, Luzzati R, Jenkins RL, Lewis WD, et al. Risk factors for invasive fungal infections complicating orthotopic liver transplantation. J Infect Dis 1994; 170: 644652.
  • 12
    Dockrell DH, Mendez JC, Jones M, Harmsen WS, Ilstrup DM, Smith TF, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 seronegativity before transplantation predicts the occurrence of fungal infection in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1999; 67: 399403.
  • 13
    Fortun J, Martin-Davila P, Moreno S, Barcena R, de Vicente E, Honrubia A, et al. Prevention of invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients: the role of prophylaxis with lipid formulations of amphotericin B in high-risk patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003; 52: 813819.
  • 14
    George MJ, Snydman DR, Werner BG, Griffith J, Falagas ME, Dougherty NN, et al. The independent role of cytomegalovirus as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Boston Center for Liver Transplantation CMVIG-Study Group. Cytogam, MedImmune, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland. Am J Med 1997; 103: 106113.
  • 15
    Hadley S, Samore MH, Lewis WD, Jenkins RL, Karchmer AW, Hammer SM. Major infectious complications after orthotopic liver transplantation and comparison of outcomes in patients receiving cyclosporine or FK506 as primary immunosuppression. Transplantation 1995; 59: 851859.
  • 16
    Husain S, Tollemar J, Dominguez EA, Baumgarten K, Humar A, Paterson DL, et al. Changes in the spectrum and risk factors for invasive candidiasis in liver transplant recipients: prospective, multicenter, case-controlled study. Transplantation 2003; 75: 20232029.
  • 17
    Karchmer AW, Samore MH, Hadley S, Collins LA, Jenkins RL, Lewis WD. Fungal infections complicating orthotopic liver transplantation. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 1995; 106: 3847; discussion, 47–48.
  • 18
    Kusne S, Torre-Cisneros J, Manez R, Irish W, Martin M, Fung J, et al. Factors associated with invasive lung aspergillosis and the significance of positive Aspergillus culture after liver transplantation. J Infect Dis 1992; 166: 13791383.
  • 19
    Patel R, Portela D, Badley AD, Harmsen WS, Larson-Keller JJ, Ilstrup DM, et al. Risk factors of invasive Candida and non-Candida fungal infections after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1996; 62: 926934.
  • 20
    Rogers J, Rohal S, Carrigan DR, Kusne S, Knox KK, Gayowski T, et al. Human herpesvirus-6 in liver transplant recipients: role in pathogenesis of fungal infections, neurologic complications, and outcome. Transplantation 2000; 69: 25662573.
  • 21
    Tollemar J, Ericzon BG, Holmberg K, Andersson J. The incidence and diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 1990; 22: 242244.
  • 22
    Wade JJ, Rolando N, Hayllar K, Philpott-Howard J, Casewell MW, Williams R. Bacterial and fungal infections after liver transplantation: an analysis of 284 patients. Hepatology 1995; 21: 13281336.
  • 23
    Winston DJ, Pakrasi A, Busuttil RW. Prophylactic fluconazole in liver transplant recipients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 729737.
  • 24
    Fortun J, Martin-Davila P, Moreno S, De Vicente E, Nuno J, Candelas A, et al. Risk factors for invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2002; 8: 10651070.
  • 25
    Singh N. Antifungal prophylaxis for solid organ transplant recipients: seeking clarity amidst controversy. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31: 545553.
  • 26
    Chang FY, Singh N, Gayowski T, Wagener MM, Mietzner SM, Stout JE, et al. Thrombocytopenia in liver transplant recipients: predictors, impact on fungal infections, and role of endogenous thrombopoietin. Transplantation 2000; 69: 7075.
  • 27
    Singh N, Avery RK, Munoz P, Pruett TL, Alexander B, Jacobs R, et al. Trends in risk profiles for and mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis among liver transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 4652.
  • 28
    De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, Stevens DA, Edwards JE, Calandra T, et al. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 18131821.
  • 29
    Munoz P, Guinea, J, Bouza E. Update on invasive aspergillosis: clinical and diagnostic aspects. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12 ( Suppl. 7): 2439.
  • 30
    Jantunen E, Nihtinen A, Anttila VJ. Changing landscape of invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2008; 10: 156161.
  • 31
    Machetti M, Zotti M, Veroni L, Mordini N, Van Lint MT, Bacigalupo A, et al. Antigen detection in the diagnosis and management of a patient with probable cerebral aspergillosis treated with voriconazole. Transpl Infect Dis 2000; 2: 140144.
  • 32
    Meersseman W, Lagrou K, Maertens J, Wilmer A, Hermans G, Vanderschueren S, et al. Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a tool for diagnosing aspergillosis in intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 177: 2734.
  • 33
    Adam O, Auperin A, Wilquin F, Bourhis JH, Gachot B, Chachaty E. Treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam and false-positive Aspergillus galactomannan antigen test results for patients with hematological malignancies. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 917920.
  • 34
    Hashiguchi K, Niki Y, Soejima R. Cyclophosphamide induces false-positive results in detection of aspergillus antigen in urine. Chest 1994; 105: 975976.
  • 35
    Obayashi T, Negishi K, Suzuki T, Funata N. Reappraisal of the serum (1–>3)-beta-D-glucan assay for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections–a study based on autopsy cases from 6 years. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 18641870.
  • 36
    Senn L, Robinson JO, Schmidt S, Knaup M, Asahi N, Satomura S, et al. 1,3-Beta-D-glucan antigenemia for early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients with acute leukemia. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 878885.
  • 37
    Kusne S, Blair JE. Viral and fungal infections after liver transplantation–part II. Liver Transpl 2006; 12: 211.
  • 38
    Paya CV. Prevention of fungal and hepatitis virus infections in liver transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33 ( Suppl. 1): S47S52.
  • 39
    Vincent JL, Anaissie E, Bruining H, Demajo W, el-Ebiary M, Haber J, et al. Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of systemic Candida infection in surgical patients under intensive care. Intensive Care Med 1998; 24: 206216.
  • 40
    Wiesner RH, Hermans PE, Rakela J, Washington JA 2nd, Perkins JD, DiCecco S, et al. Selective bowel decontamination to decrease gram-negative aerobic bacterial and Candida colonization and prevent infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplantation 1988; 45: 570574.
  • 41
    Decruyenaere J, Colardyn F, Vogelaers D, Claeys G, Hesse U, De Deyne C, et al. Combined use of fluconazole and selective digestive decontamination in the prevention of fungal infection after adult liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 35153516.
  • 42
    Hjortrup A, Rasmussen A, Hansen BA, Hoiby N, Heslet L, Moesgaard F, et al. Early bacterial and fungal infections in liver transplantation after oral selective bowel decontamination. Transplant Proc 1997; 29: 31063110.
  • 43
    Steffen R, Reinhartz O, Blumhardt G, Bechstein WO, Raakow R, Langrehr JM, et al. Bacterial and fungal colonization and infections using oral selective bowel decontamination in orthotopic liver transplantations. Transpl Int 1994; 7: 101108.
  • 44
    Venuti F, Panarello G, Gruttadauria S, Burgio G, Di Stefano R, Provenzani A, et al. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract in adult-to-adult living related liver transplant patients: a single centre experience. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2008; 31: 486487.
  • 45
    Wiesner RH, Hermans P, Rakela J, Perkins J, Washington J, DiCecco S, et al. Selective bowel decontamination to prevent gram-negative bacterial and fungal infection following orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 1987; 19: 24202423.
  • 46
    Gorensek MJ, Carey WD, Washington JA 2nd, Vogt DP, Broughan TA, Westveer MK. Selective bowel decontamination with quinolones and nystatin reduces gram-negative and fungal infections in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Cleve Clin J Med 1993; 60: 139144.
  • 47
    Emre S, Sebastian A, Chodoff L, Boccagni P, Meyers B, Sheiner PA, et al. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract helps prevent bacterial infections in the early postoperative period after liver transplant. Mt Sinai J Med 1999; 66: 310313.
  • 48
    Hellinger WC, Yao JD, Alvarez S, Blair JE, Cawley JJ, Paya CV, et al. A randomized, prospective, double-blinded evaluation of selective bowel decontamination in liver transplantation. Transplantation 2002; 73: 19041909.
  • 49
    Badger IL, Crosby HA, Kong KL, Baker JP, Hutchings P, Elliott TS, et al. Is selective decontamination of the digestive tract beneficial in liver transplant patients? Interim results of a prospective, randomized trial. Transplant Proc 1991; 23: 14601461.
  • 50
    Ruskin JD, Wood RP, Bailey MR, Whitmore CK, Shaw BW. Comparative trial of oral clotrimazole and nystatin for oropharyngeal candidiasis prophylaxis in orthotopic liver transplant patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992; 74: 567571.
  • 51
    Rayes N, Seehofer D, Hansen S, Boucsein K, Muller AR, Serke S, et al. Early enteral supply of lactobacillus and fiber versus selective bowel decontamination: a controlled trial in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2002; 74: 123127.
  • 52
    Rosman C, Klompmaker IJ, Bonsel GJ, Bleichrodt RP, Arends JP, Slooff MJ. The efficacy of selective bowel decontamination as infection prevention after liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 1990; 22: 15541555.
  • 53
    Kuo PC, Bartlett ST, Lim JW, Plotkin JS, Wilson S, Johnson LB. Selective bowel decontamination in hospitalized patients awaiting liver transplantation. Am J Surg 1997; 174: 745748; discussion, 749.
  • 54
    Tortorano A, Viviani M, Pagano A, Paone G, Gridelli B, Breda G, et al. Candida colonization in orthotopic liver transplantation: fluconazole versus oral amphotericin B. J Mycol Med 1995; 5: 2124.
  • 55
    Arnow PM, Carandang GC, Zabner R, Irwin ME. Randomized controlled trial of selective bowel decontamination for prevention of infections following liver transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 22: 9971003.
  • 56
    Zwaveling JH, Maring JK, Klompmaker IJ, Haagsma EB, Bottema JT, Laseur M, et al. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract to prevent postoperative infection: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in liver transplant patients. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 12041209.
  • 57
    Sharpe MD, Ghent C, Grant D, Horbay GL, McDougal J, Colby WD. Efficacy and safety of itraconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections after orthotopic liver transplantation: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Transplantation 2003; 76: 977983.
  • 58
    Braun F, Ruchel R, Lorf T, Canelo R, Muller A, Sattler B, et al. Is liposomal amphotericin B (ambisome) an effective prophylaxis of mycotic infections after liver transplantation? Transplant Proc 1998; 30: 14811483.
  • 59
    Castroagudin JF, Ponton C, Bustamante M, Otero E, Martinez J, Tome S, et al. Prospective interventional study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B as prophylaxis of fungal infections in high-risk liver transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2005; 37: 39653967.
  • 60
    Lorf T, Braun F, Ruchel R, Muller A, Sattler B, Ringe B. Systemic mycoses during prophylactical use of liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) after liver transplantation. Mycoses 1999; 42: 4753.
  • 61
    Mora NP, Klintmalm G, Solomon H, Goldstein RM, Gonwa TA, Husberg BS. Selective amphotericin B prophylaxis in the reduction of fungal infections after liver transplant. Transplant Proc 1992; 24: 154155.
  • 62
    Shah T, Lai WK, Gow P, Leeming J, Mutimer D. Low-dose amphotericin for prevention of serious fungal infection following liver transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2005; 7: 126132.
  • 63
    Singhal S, Ellis RW, Jones SG, Miller SJ, Fisher NC, Hastings JG, et al. Targeted prophylaxis with amphotericin B lipid complex in liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2000; 6: 588595.
  • 64
    Hellinger WC, Bonatti H, Yao JD, Alvarez S, Brumble LM, Keating MR, et al. Risk stratification and targeted antifungal prophylaxis for prevention of aspergillosis and other invasive mold infections after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2005; 11: 656662.
  • 65
    Singh N, Paterson DL, Gayowski T, Wagener MM, Marino IR. Preemptive prophylaxis with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B for invasive fungal infections in liver transplant recipients requiring renal replacement therapy. Transplantation 2001; 71: 910913.
  • 66
    Tollemar J, Hockerstedt K, Ericzon BG, Jalanko H, Ringden O. Prophylaxis with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) prevents fungal infections in liver transplant recipients: long-term results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 11951198.
  • 67
    Singh N, Mieles L, Yu VL, Gayowski T. Invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients: association with candidemia and consumption coagulopathy and failure of prophylaxis with low-dose amphotericin B. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: 906908.
  • 68
    Fortun J, Martin-Davila P, de Vicente E, Nuno J, Alvarez ME, Sanchez-Sousa A, et al. Prophylaxis with oral fluconazole and an oral solution of amphotericin B in liver transplant patients. Transplant Proc 2002; 34: 8081.
  • 69
    Kung N, Fisher N, Gunson B, Hastings M, Mutimer D. Fluconazole prophylaxis for high-risk liver transplant recipients. Lancet 1995; 345: 12341235.
  • 70
    Lumbreras C, Cuervas-Mons V, Jara P, del Palacio A, Turrion VS, Barrios C, et al. Randomized trial of fluconazole versus nystatin for the prophylaxis of Candida infection following liver transplantation. J Infect Dis 1996; 174: 583588.
  • 71
    Hadley S, Huckabee C, Pappas PG, Daly J, Rabkin J, Kauffman CA, et al. Outcomes of antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk liver transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2009; 11: 4048.
  • 72
    Singh N, Wagener MM, Cacciarelli TV, Levitsky J. Antifungal management practices in liver transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 426431.
  • 73
    Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, Benjamin DK Jr, Calandra TF, Edwards JE Jr, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 503535.
  • 74
    Pappas PG, Rex JH, Sobel JD, Filler SG, Dismukes WE, Walsh TJ, et al. Guidelines for treatment of candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 161189.
  • 75
    Cruciani M, Mengoli C, Malena M, Bosco O, Serpelloni G, Grossi P. Antifungal prophylaxis in liver transplant patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Liver Transpl 2006; 12: 850858.
  • 76
    Playford EG, Webster AC, Sorrell TC, Craig JC. Systematic review and meta-analysis of antifungal agents for preventing fungal infections in liver transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2006; 25: 549561.
  • 77
    Pappas PG, Andes D, Schuster M, Hadley S, Rabkin J, Merion RM, et al. Invasive fungal infections in low-risk liver transplant recipients: a multi-center prospective observational study. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 386391.
  • 78
    Reed A, Herndon JB, Ersoz N, Fujikawa T, Schain D, Lipori P, et al. Effect of prophylaxis on fungal infection and costs for high-risk liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2007; 13: 17431750.
  • 79
    Lee I, Fishman NO, Zaoutis TE, Morales KH, Weiner MG, Synnestvedt M, et al. Risk factors for fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata bloodstream infections. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169: 379383.
  • 80
    Deray G. Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity. J Antimicrob Chemother 2002; 49 ( Suppl. 1): 3741.
  • 81
    Singh N, Pruett TL, Houston S, Munoz P, Cacciarelli TV, Wagener MM, et al. Invasive aspergillosis in the recipients of liver retransplantation. Liver Transpl 2006; 12: 12051209.
  • 82
    Lam SW, Eschenauer GA, Carver PL. Evolving role of early antifungals in the adult intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2009; 37: 15801593.
  • 83
    Eggimann P, Francioli P, Bille J, Schneider R, Wu MM, Chapuis G, et al. Fluconazole prophylaxis prevents intra-abdominal candidiasis in high-risk surgical patients. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 10661072.
  • 84
    Gavalda J, Len O, San Juan R, Aguado JM, Fortun J, Lumbreras C, et al. Risk factors for invasive aspergillosis in solid-organ transplant recipients: a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 5259.