1. De novo malignancy is one of the leading causes of late mortality after liver transplantation.
2. The risks of skin cancers and lymphoma are more than 10-fold greater than the risks in an age-matched and sex-matched general population.
3. Some types of neoplasia, such as lung, head and neck, and colorectal cancer, are more frequent in liver transplant recipients than in an age-matched and sex-matched population. The risks of other frequent malignancies, such as prostate and breast cancer, do not seem to be increased.
4. The most important risks for posttransplant malignancy are Epstein-Barr virus seronegativity (for lymphoma), sun exposure (for skin cancer), smoking, and increasing age.
5. Despite the absence of evidence, general recommendations (such as avoidance of overimmunosuppression, sunlight protection, and cessation of smoking) should be given. Screening protocols may help to detect neoplasia at an early stage of disease. Liver Transpl 15:S90–S94, 2009. © 2009 AASLD.