1. The goal of liver transplantation is not only to ensure the survival of patients but also to offer patients the opportunity to achieve a good balance between the functional efficacy of the graft and their psychological and physical integrity. The quality of life after transplantation may be affected by unsatisfactory sexual activity and reproductive performance.
2. Sexual dysfunction and sex hormone disturbances are widely reported in men and women with chronic liver disease before liver transplantation.
3. Successful liver transplantation should lead to improvements in sexual function and sex hormone disturbances in both men and women, therefore improving reproductive performance, but immunosuppressive drugs may interfere with hormone metabolism.
4. Pregnancy is often successful after liver transplantation, despite the potentially toxic effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy, but fetal and maternal outcomes should be regularly assessed.
5. More detailed and comprehensive data are needed in the field of sexual function after transplantation, and new strategies are needed to support and inform patients on the waiting list and after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 15:S50–S56, 2009. © 2009 AASLD.