Key Points

1. Despite methodological problems in estimating the true incidence of new-onset diabetes (NODM), it is generally accepted that this is a common complication of liver transplantation (LT), with the mean reported incidence varying between 7% and 30%.

2. The main predictors of post-LT NODM are ethnicity, a family history of diabetes, age > 45 years, glucose intolerance prior to LT, central obesity, metabolic syndrome, use of corticosteroids over a long period, use of tacrolimus, and hepatitis C infection.

3. NODM is associated with impaired long-term graft function and reduced survival. Diabetes is among the main risk factors for coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral occlusive arterial disease in transplant recipients.

4. The management of NODM includes the therapeutic and preventive steps taken in patients with type 2 diabetes. Little information exists on the use of antidiabetic compounds in transplant recipients. Some studies have suggested that LT recipients with NODM may benefit from a conversion to cyclosporine through improved glucose metabolism. Liver Transpl 15:S79–S82, 2009. © 2009 AASLD.