• 1
    United Network for Organ Sharing. Allocation of livers. policy_8.Pdf. Accessed June 2010.
  • 2
    Kamath PS, Wiesner RH, Malinchoc M, Kremers W, Therneau TM, Kosberg CL, et al. A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology 2001; 33: 464-470.
  • 3
    Malinchoc M, Kamath PS, Gordon FD, Peine CJ, Rank J, ter Borg PC. A model to predict poor survival in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Hepatology 2000; 31: 864-871.
  • 4
    Kanwal F, Dulai G, Gralnek IM, Han SB, Spiegel BM. The impact of gender on access to liver transplantation in the MELD era. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: A701.
  • 5
    Moylan CA, Brady CW, Johnson JL, Smith AD, Tuttle-Newhall JE, Muir AJ. Disparities in liver transplantation before and after introduction of the MELD score. JAMA 2008; 300: 2371-2378.
  • 6
    Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, Greene T, Rogers N, Roth D. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 461-470.
  • 7
    Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Marsh J, Stevens LA, Kusek JW, Van Lente F. Expressing the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate with standardized serum creatinine values. Clin Chem 2007; 53: 766-772.
  • 8
    Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF III, Feldman HI, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 604-612.
  • 9
    National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification and stratification. evaluation_classification_stratification.Pdf. Accessed June 2010.
  • 10
    Levey AS, Eckardt KU, Tsukamoto Y, Levin A, Coresh J, Rossert J, et al. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: a position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int 2005; 67: 2089-2100.
  • 11
    Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E, Kausz AT, Levin A, Steffes MW, et al. National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 137-147.
  • 12
    World Health Organization. Global database on body mass index. intro_3.html. Accessed June 2010.
  • 13
    Mindikoglu AL, Regev A, Magder LS. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on survival after liver transplantation: analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing database. Transplantation 2008; 85: 359-368.
  • 14
    SAS software. Http://www.Sas.Com/. The data analysis for this paper was generated using SAS software, version 9.2 of the SAS system for windows. Copyright © 2002-2008 SAS Institute Inc. SAS and all other SAS Institute Inc. Product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  • 15
    Kremers W, Bergstralh E, Therneau T. Criskcox SAS macro: competing risk survival analysis with covariates. Accessed June 2010.
  • 16
    Minitab 15 Statistical Software ( 2007) [Computer software]. State College PM, Inc. (
  • 17
    Axelrod DA, Pomfret EA. Race and sex disparities in liver transplantation: progress toward achieving equal access? JAMA 2008; 300: 2425-2426.
  • 18
    Mindikoglu AL, Magder LS, Seliger SL, Raufman JP, Howell CD. Outcomes and predictors of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation among patients with kidney dysfunction who are not on dialysis on the liver transplant waiting list. Gastroenterology 2010; 138( suppl 1): S774.
  • 19
    Kausz AT, Obrador GT, Arora P, Ruthazer R, Levey AS, Pereira BJ. Late initiation of dialysis among women and ethnic minorities in the United States. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 2351-2357.
  • 20
    Obrador GT, Arora P, Kausz AT, Ruthazer R, Pereira BJ, Levey AS. Level of renal function at the initiation of dialysis in the U.S. end-stage renal disease population. Kidney Int 1999; 56: 2227-2235.
  • 21
    Cholongitas E, Marelli L, Kerry A, Goodier DW, Nair D, Thomas M, et al. Female liver transplant recipients with the same GFR as male recipients have lower MELD scores—a systematic bias. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 685-692.
  • 22
    Gonwa TA, Jennings L, Mai ML, Stark PC, Levey AS, Klintmalm GB. Estimation of glomerular filtration rates before and after orthotopic liver transplantation: evaluation of current equations. Liver Transpl 2004; 10: 301-309.
  • 23
    Skluzacek PA, Szewc RG, Nolan CR III, Riley DJ, Lee S, Pergola PE. Prediction of GFR in liver transplant candidates. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42: 1169-1176.
  • 24
    Poge U, Gerhardt T, Stoffel-Wagner B, Klehr HU, Sauerbruch T, Woitas RP. Calculation of glomerular filtration rate based on cystatin C in cirrhotic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 660-664.
  • 25
    Demirtas S, Bozbas A, Akbay A, Yavuz Y, Karaca L. Diagnostic value of serum cystatin C for evaluation of hepatorenal syndrome. Clin Chim Acta 2001; 311: 81-89.
  • 26
    Gerbes AL, Gulberg V, Bilzer M, Vogeser M. Evaluation of serum cystatin C concentration as a marker of renal function in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Gut 2002; 50: 106-110.
  • 27
    Orlando R, Mussap M, Plebani M, Piccoli P, De Martin S, Floreani M, et al. Diagnostic value of plasma cystatin C as a glomerular filtration marker in decompensated liver cirrhosis. Clin Chem 2002; 48: 850-858.
  • 28
    Randers E, Ivarsen P, Erlandsen EJ, Hansen EF, Aagaard NK, Bendtsen F, Vilstrup H. Plasma cystatin C as a marker of renal function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2002; 62: 129-134.
  • 29
    Ustundag Y, Samsar U, Acikgoz S, Cabuk M, Kiran S, Kulah E, Aydemir S. Analysis of glomerular filtration rate, serum cystatin C levels, and renal resistive index values in cirrhosis patients. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45: 890-894.
  • 30
    Woitas RP, Stoffel-Wagner B, Flommersfeld S, Poege U, Schiedermaier P, Klehr HU, et al. Correlation of serum concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine to inulin clearance in liver cirrhosis. Clin Chem 2000; 46: 712-715.
  • 31
    Hoek FJ, Kemperman FA, Krediet RT. A comparison between cystatin C, plasma creatinine and the Cockcroft and Gault formula for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 2024-2031.
  • 32
    Larsson A, Malm J, Grubb A, Hansson LO. Calculation of glomerular filtration rate expressed in mL/min from plasma cystatin C values in mg/L. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2004; 64: 25-30.
  • 33
    Stevens LA, Coresh J, Schmid CH, Feldman HI, Froissart M, Kusek J, et al. Estimating GFR using serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine: a pooled analysis of 3,418 individuals with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 51: 395-406.
  • 34
    Myers GL, Miller WG, Coresh J, Fleming J, Greenberg N, Greene T, et al. Recommendations for improving serum creatinine measurement: a report from the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program. Clin Chem 2006; 52: 5-18.
  • 35
    Goulding C, Cholongitas E, Nair D, Kerry A, Patch D, Akyol M, et al. Assessment of reproducibility of creatinine measurement and MELD scoring in four liver transplant units in the UK. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 960-966.