Biliary complications occur more frequently after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) versus deceased donor liver transplantation, and they remain the most common and intractable problems after LDLT. The anatomical limitations of multiple tiny bile ducts and the differential blood supplies of the graft ducts may be significant factors in the pathophysiological mechanisms of biliary complications in patients undergoing LDLT. A clear understanding of the biliary blood supply, the Glissonian sheath, and the hilar plate has contributed to new techniques for preparing bile ducts for anastomosis, and these techniques have resulted in a dramatic drop in the incidence of biliary complications. Most biliary complications after LDLT can be successfully treated with nonsurgical approaches, although the management of multiple biliary anastomoses and nonanastomotic strictures continues to be a challenge. Liver Transpl 17:1127–1136, 2011. © 2011 AASLD.