Epidemiology and outcome of infections in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis c virus–coinfected liver transplant recipients: A FIPSE/GESIDA Prospective Cohort Study§


  • The results of this article were presented in part at the 49th Annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Francisco, CA, 2009 (abstract K-974).

  • A list of the investigators is provided in the supporting information.

  • §

    This study was supported by the Spanish Foundation for the Investigation and Prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Madrid, Spain) through research grants TOH-VIH-05 and TOH-VIH-08. José M. Miró received an INT10/219 Intensification Research Grant (through I3SNS and PRICS) from the Carlos III Institute of Health (Madrid, during 2011 Spain) and the Department of Health of the Generalitat of Catalonia (Barcelona, Spain).


Information about infections unrelated to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected liver recipients is scarce. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, time of onset, and outcomes of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)–coinfected orthotopic liver transplant recipients and to identify risk factors for developing severe infections. We studied 84 consecutive HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who underwent liver transplantation at 17 sites in Spain between 2002 and 2006 and were followed until December 2009. The median age was 42 years, and 76% were men. The median follow-up was 2.6 years (interquartile range = 1.25-3.53 years), and 54 recipients (64%) developed at least 1 infection. Thirty-eight (45%) patients had bacterial infections, 21 (25%) had cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections (2 had CMV disease), 13 (15%) had herpes simplex virus infections, and 16 (19%) had fungal infections (7 cases were invasive). Nine patients (11%) developed 10 opportunistic infections with a 44% mortality rate. Forty-three of 119 infectious episodes (36%) occurred in the first month after transplantation, and 53 (45%) occurred after the sixth month. Thirty-six patients (43%) had severe infections. Overall, 36 patients (43%) died, and the deaths were related to severe infections in 7 cases (19%). Severe infections increased the mortality rate almost 3-fold [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-5.8]. Independent factors for severe infections included a pretransplant Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score >15 (HR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.70-7.1), a history of AIDS-defining events before transplantation (HR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.9-8.6), and non–tacrolimus-based immunosuppression (HR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-4.8). In conclusion, the rates of severe and opportunistic infections are high in HIV/HCV-coinfected liver recipients and especially in those with a history of AIDS, a high MELD score, or non–tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Liver Transpl 18:70–82, 2012. © 2011 AASLD.