• 1
    Wong F, Girgrah N, Graba J, Allidina Y, Liu P, Blendis L. The cardiac response to exercise in cirrhosis. Gut 2001; 49: 268-275.
  • 2
    Campillo B, Fouet P, Bonnet JC, Atlan G. Submaximal oxygen consumption in liver cirrhosis. Evidence of severe functional aerobic impairment. J Hepatol 1990; 10: 163-167.
  • 3
    Dharancy S, Lemyze M, Boleslawski E, Neviere R, Declerck N, Canva V, et al. Impact of impaired aerobic capacity on liver transplant candidates. Transplantation 2008; 86: 1077-1083.
  • 4
    Epstein SK, Ciubotaru RL, Zilberberg MD, Kaplan LM, Jacoby C, Freeman R, Kaplan MM. Analysis of impaired exercise capacity in patients with cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43: 1701-1707.
  • 5
    DeLissio M, Goodyear LJ, Fuller S, Krawitt EL, Devlin JT. Effects of treadmill exercise on fuel metabolism in hepatic cirrhosis. J Appl Physiol 1991; 70: 210-215.
  • 6
    Campillo B, Chapelain C, Bonnet JC, Frisdal E, Devanlay M, Bouissou P, et al. Hormonal and metabolic changes during exercise in cirrhotic patients. Metabolism 1990; 39: 18-24.
  • 7
    Terziyski K, Andonov V, Marinov B, Kostianev S. Exercise performance and ventilatory efficiency in patients with mild and moderate liver cirrhosis. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2008; 35: 135-140.
  • 8
    Ritland S, Petlund CF, Knudsen T, Skrede S. Improvement of physical capacity after long-term training in patients with chronic active hepatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1983; 18: 1083-1087.
  • 9
    Pieber K, Crevenna R, Nuhr MJ, Quittan M, Peck-Radosavljevic M, Fialka-Moser V, Wiesinger GF. Aerobic capacity, muscle strength and health-related quality of life before and after orthotopic liver transplantation: preliminary data of an Austrian transplantation centre. J Rehabil Med 2006; 38: 322-328.
  • 10
    Wiesinger GF, Quittan M, Zimmermann K, Nuhr M, Wichlas M, Bodingbauer M, et al. Physical performance and health-related quality of life in men on a liver transplantation waiting list. J Rehabil Med 2001; 33: 260-265.
  • 11
    Andersen H, Borre M, Jakobsen J, Andersen PH, Vilstrup H. Decreased muscle strength in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis in relation to nutritional status, alcohol abstinence, liver function, and neuropathy. Hepatology 1998; 27: 1200-1206.
  • 12
    Tarter RE, Panzak G, Switala J, Lu S, Simkevitz H, Van Thiel D. Isokinetic muscle strength and its association with neuropsychological capacity in cirrhotic alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1997; 21: 191-196.
  • 13
    Epstein SK, Freeman RB, Khayat A, Unterborn JN, Pratt DS, Kaplan MM. Aerobic capacity is associated with 100-day outcome after hepatic transplantation. Liver Transpl 2004; 10: 418-424.
  • 14
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. Darby, PA: Diane Publishing; 1989.
  • 15
    American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.
  • 16
    Boulé NG, Kenny GP, Haddad E, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Meta-analysis of the effect of structured exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 2003; 46: 1071-1081.
  • 17
    Mancini DM, Eisen H, Kussmaul W, Mull R, Edmunds LH Jr, Wilson JR. Value of peak exercise oxygen consumption for optimal timing of cardiac transplantation in ambulatory patients with heart failure. Circulation 1991; 83: 778-786.
  • 18
    Church TS, LaMonte MJ, Barlow CE, Blair SN. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index as predictors of cardiovascular disease mortality among men with diabetes. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 2114-2120.
  • 19
    Sietsema KE, Amato A, Adler SG, Brass EP. Exercise capacity as a predictor of survival among ambulatory patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 2004; 65: 719-724.
  • 20
    Montano-Loza AJ, Meza-Junco J, Prado CM, Lieffers JR, Baracos VE, Bain VG, Sawyer MB. Muscle wasting is associated with mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2011.08.028.
  • 21
    Wind AE, Takken T, Helders PJ, Engelbert RH. Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults? Eur J Pediatr 2010; 169: 281-287.
  • 22
    Roig M, Eng JJ, MacIntyre DL, Road JD, Reid WD. Deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality, and mobility in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2011; 31: 120-124.
  • 23
    García-Pagàn JC, Santos C, Barberá JA, Luca A, Roca J, Rodriguez-Roisin R, et al. Physical exercise increases portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 1300-1306.
  • 24
    Gulati M, Pandey DK, Arnsdorf MF, Lauderdale DS, Thisted RA, Wicklund RH, et al. Exercise capacity and the risk of death in women: the St James Women Take Heart Project. Circulation 2003; 108: 1554-1559.
  • 25
    Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 793-801.
  • 26
    Svedahl K, MacIntosh BR. Anaerobic threshold: the concept and methods of measurement. Can J Appl Physiol 2003; 28: 299-323.
  • 27
    Kelbaek H, Rabøl A, Brynjolf I, Eriksen J, Bonnevie O, Godtfredsen J, et al. Haemodynamic response to exercise in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Clin Physiol 1987; 7: 35-41.
  • 28
    Gerbes AL, Remien J, Jüngst D, Sauerbruch T, Paumgartner G. Evidence for down-regulation of beta-2-adrenoceptors in cirrhotic patients with severe ascites. Lancet 1986; 1: 1409-1411.
  • 29
    Carey EJ, Steidley DE, Aqel BA, Byrne TJ, Mekeel KL, Rakela J, et al. Six-minute walk distance predicts mortality in liver transplant candidates. Liver Transpl 2010; 16: 1373-1378.
  • 30
    Mayo NE, Feldman L, Scott S, Zavorsky G, Kim do J, Charlebois P, et al. Impact of preoperative change in physical function on postoperative recovery: argument supporting prehabilitation for colorectal surgery. Surgery 2011; 150: 505-514.
  • 31
    Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN, Duncan PW, Judge JO, King AC, et al. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 1435-1445.