The ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the host may affect the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV). We aimed to compare survival and fibrosis progression in Hispanic white (HW) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) recipients of liver transplantation (LT) with HCV. All HW and NHW patients with HCV who underwent transplantation between January 2000 and December 2007 at 2 centers were retrospectively assessed. The primary outcomes were the time to death, death or graft loss due to HCV, and significant fibrosis [at least stage 2 of 4]. Five hundred eleven patients were studied (159 HW patients and 352 NHW patients), and the baseline demographics were similar for the 2 groups. NHW patients were more likely to be male, to have attended college, and to have private insurance, and they had a higher median household income (MHI). The unadjusted rates of survival (log-rank P = 0.93), death or graft loss due to HCV (P = 0.89), and significant fibrosis (P = 0.95) were similar between groups. In a multivariate analysis controlling for center, age [hazard ratio (HR) per 10 years = 1.43, P = 0.01], donor age (HR per 10 years = 1.25, P < 0.001), and rejection (HR = 1.47, P = 0.048) predicted death, whereas HW ethnicity (HR = 1.06, P = 0.77) was not significant. Independent predictors of significant fibrosis were HW ethnicity (HR = 2.42, P = 0.046), MHI (HR per $10,000 = 1.11, P = 0.01), donor age (HR per 10 years = 1.13, P = 0.02), cold ischemia time (HR = 1.06, P = 0.03), and the interaction between ethnicity and MHI (HR = 0.82, P = 0.03). In conclusion, there is no difference in post-LT survival or graft loss due to HCV between HW patients and NHW patients. Socioeconomic factors may influence disease severity; this is suggested by our findings of more significant fibrosis in HW patients with a low MHI. Liver Transpl 18:461–467, 2012. © 2012 AASLD.