Controversy remains about the role of protocol liver biopsy for symptom-free recipients and about the long-term use of low-dose steroids after pediatric liver transplantation (LT). We conducted a national cross-sectional study of pediatric recipients who underwent LT between 1987 and 2007. Liver biopsy samples were taken from 54 patients (82% of survivors) after a median posttransplant follow-up of 11 years, and they were reviewed by 2 pathologists blinded to the clinical data. Biopsy samples from 18 patients (33%) showed nearly normal histology with no inflammation, fibrosis, or steatosis. Portal inflammation was detected in 14 samples (26%), showed no correlation with anti-nuclear antibodies, and was less frequent in the 35 patients whose immunosuppression included steroids (14% versus 47% of patients not using steroids, P = 0.009). Fibrosis was present in 21 biopsy samples (39%). According to the Metavir classification, 15 were stage 1, 4 were stage 2, and 2 were stage 3. The fibrosis stage correlated negatively with serum prealbumin levels (r = −0.364, P = 0.007) and positively with chronic cholestasis (cytokeratin 7 staining; r = 0.546, P < 0.001) and portal inflammation (r = 0.350, P = 0.01). Microvesicular steatosis was found in 23 biopsy samples (43% of patients in 5%-80% of hepatocytes), and it correlated with the body mass index (r = 0.517, P < 0.001) but not with steroid use. The age of the allograft (donor age plus follow-up time) correlated with higher serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (r = 0.472, P < 0.001) and conjugated bilirubin levels (r = 0.420, P = 0.002) as well as chronic cholestasis (r = 0.305, P = 0.03). The biopsy findings led to treatment changes in 10 patients (19%), whereas only 1 complication (subcapsular hematoma) was encountered. In conclusion, continuing low-dose steroids indefinitely after pediatric LT may have a positive effect on the long-term histological state of the liver graft. Allograft aging may lead to chronic cholestasis and thus contribute to the development of liver fibrosis. Liver Transpl 19:145–154, 2013. © 2012 AASLD.