• 1
    Kawut SM, Krowka MJ, Trotter JF, Roberts KE, Benza RL, Badesch DB, et al.; for Pulmonary Vascular Complications of Liver Disease Study Group. Clinical risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension. Hepatology 2008;48:196-203.
  • 2
    Lange PA, Stoller JK. The hepatopulmonary syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:521-529.
  • 3
    Krowka MJ, Cortese DA. Hepatopulmonary syndrome. Current concepts in diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Chest 1994;105:1528-1537.
  • 4
    Rodríguez-Roisin R, Agustí AG, Roca J. The hepatopulmonary syndrome: new name, old complexities. Thorax 1992;47:897-902.
  • 5
    Rodriguez-Roisin R, Krowka MJ. Is severe arterial hypoxaemia due to hepatic disease an indication for liver transplantation? A new therapeutic approach. Eur Respir J 1994;7:839-842.
  • 6
    Rodríguez-Roisin R, Krowka MJ, Hervé P, Fallon MB; for ERS Task Force Pulmonary-Hepatic Vascular Disorders (PHD) Scientific Committee. Pulmonary-hepatic vascular disorders (PHD). Eur Respir J 2004;24:861-880.
  • 7
    Schouten JN, Garcia-Pagan JC, Valla DC, Janssen HL. Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Hepatology 2011;54:1071-1081.
  • 8
    Martínez GP, Barberà JA, Visa J, Rimola A, Paré JC, Roca J, et al. Hepatopulmonary syndrome in candidates for liver transplantation. J Hepatol 2001;34:651-657.
  • 9
    Gupta D, Vijaya DR, Gupta R, Dhiman RK, Bhargava M, Verma J, Chawla YK. Prevalence of hepatopulmonary syndrome in cirrhosis and extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:3395-3399.
    Direct Link:
  • 10
    Machicao VI, Fallon MB. Hepatopulmonary syndrome. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2012;33:11-16.
  • 11
    Schenk P, Fuhrmann V, Madl C, Funk G, Lehr S, Kandel O, Müller C. Hepatopulmonary syndrome: prevalence and predictive value of various cut offs for arterial oxygenation and their clinical consequences. Gut 2002;51:853-859.
  • 12
    Krowka MJ, Edwards WD. A spectrum of pulmonary vascular pathology in portopulmonary hypertension. Liver Transpl 2000;6:241-242.
  • 13
    Schenk P, Schöniger-Hekele M, Fuhrmann V, Madl C, Silberhumer G, Müller C. Prognostic significance of the hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 2003;125:1042-1052.
  • 14
    Rodríguez-Roisin R, Krowka MJ. Hepatopulmonary syndrome—a liver-induced lung vascular disorder. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2378-2387.
  • 15
    Taillé C, Cadranel J, Bellocq A, Thabut G, Soubrane O, Durand F, et al. Liver transplantation for hepatopulmonary syndrome: a ten-year experience in Paris, France. Transplantation 2003;75:1482-1489.
  • 16
    Swanson KL, Wiesner RH, Krowka MJ. Natural history of hepatopulmonary syndrome: impact of liver transplantation. Hepatology 2005;41:1122-1129.
  • 17
    Krowka MJ. Portopulmonary hypertension: diagnostic advances and caveats. Liver Transpl 2003;9:1336-1337.
  • 18
    Benjaminov FS, Prentice M, Sniderman KW, Siu S, Liu P, Wong F. Portopulmonary hypertension in decompensated cirrhosis with refractory ascites. Gut 2003;52:1355-1362.
  • 19
    Colle IO, Moreau R, Godinho E, Belghiti J, Ettori F, Cohen-Solal A, et al. Diagnosis of portopulmonary hypertension in candidates for liver transplantation: a prospective study. Hepatology 2003;37:401-409.
  • 20
    Hadengue A, Benhayoun MK, Lebrec D, Benhamou JP. Pulmonary hypertension complicating portal hypertension: prevalence and relation to splanchnic hemodynamics. Gastroenterology 1991;100:520-528.
  • 21
    Swanson KL, Wiesner RH, Nyberg SL, Rosen CB, Krowka MJ. Survival in portopulmonary hypertension: Mayo Clinic experience categorized by treatment subgroups. Am J Transplant 2008;8:2445-2453.
  • 22
    Martínez-Palli G, Rodríguez-Roisin R. Hepatopulmonary syndrome: a liver-induced oxygenation defect. Eur Respir Monogr 2011;54:246-264.
  • 23
    Mooi WJ, Grünberg K. Histopathology of pulmonary hypertensive diseases. Curr Diagn Pathol 2006;12:429-440.
  • 24
    Krowka MJ, Mandell MS, Ramsay MA, Kawut SM, Fallon MB, Manzarbeitia C, et al. Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension: a report of the multicenter liver transplant database. Liver Transpl 2004;10:174-182.
  • 25
    Wanless IR, Nakashima E, Sherman M. Regression of human cirrhosis. Morphologic features and the genesis of incomplete septal cirrhosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:1599-1607.
  • 26
    Kim MY, Cho MY, Baik SK, Park HJ, Jeon HK, Im CK, et al. Histological subclassification of cirrhosis using the Laennec fibrosis scoring system correlates with clinical stage and grade of portal hypertension. J Hepatol 2011;55:1004-1009.
  • 27
    Gebhardt R, Baldysiak-Figiel A, Krügel V, Ueberham E, Gaunitz F. Hepatocellular expression of glutamine synthetase: an indicator of morphogen actions as master regulators of zonation in adult liver. Prog Histochem Cytochem 2007;41:201-266.
  • 28
    Racine-Samson L, Scoazec JY, D'Errico A, Fiorentino M, Christa L, Moreau A, et al. The metabolic organization of the adult human liver: a comparative study of normal, fibrotic, and cirrhotic liver tissue. Hepatology 1996;24:104-113.
  • 29
    Coston WM, Loera S, Lau SK, Ishizawa S, Jiang Z, Wu CL, et al. Distinction of hepatocellular carcinoma from benign hepatic mimickers using glypican-3 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32:433-444.
  • 30
    Di Tommaso L, Franchi G, Park YN, Fiamengo B, Destro A, Morenghi E, et al. Diagnostic value of HSP70, glypican 3, and glutamine synthetase in hepatocellular nodules in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2007;45:725-734.
  • 31
    Pusztaszeri MP, Seelentag W, Bosman FT. Immunohistochemical expression of endothelial markers CD31, CD34, von Willebrand factor, and Fli-1 in normal human tissues. J Histochem Cytochem 2006;54:385-395.
  • 32
    Wanless IR, Crawford JM. Cirrhosis. In: Odze RD, Goldblum JR, eds. Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2009:1115-1145.
  • 33
    R Development Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2012.
  • 34
    Desmet VJ, Roskams T. Cirrhosis reversal: a duel between dogma and myth. J Hepatol 2004;40:860-867.
  • 35
    Krowka MJ, Wiseman GA, Burnett OL, Spivey JR, Therneau T, Porayko MK, Wiesner RH. Hepatopulmonary syndrome: a prospective study of relationships between severity of liver disease, PaO(2) response to 100% oxygen, and brain uptake after (99m)Tc MAA lung scanning. Chest 2000;118:615-624.
  • 36
    Cadoret A, Ovejero C, Terris B, Souil E, Lévy L, Lamers WH, et al. New targets of beta-catenin signaling in the liver are involved in the glutamine metabolism. Oncogene 2002;21:8293-8301.
  • 37
    Zoli M, Cordiani MR, Marchesini G, Abbati S, Bianchi G, Pisi E. Ultrasonographic follow-up of liver cirrhosis. J Clin Ultrasound 1990;18:91-96.
  • 38
    Zoli M, Cordiani MR, Marchesini G, Iervese T, Labate AM, Bonazzi C, et al. Prognostic indicators in compensated cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol 1991;86:1508-1513.
  • 39
    Lin XZ, Sun YN, Liu YH, Sheu BS, Cheng BN, Chen CY, et al. Liver volume in patients with or without chronic liver diseases. Hepatogastroenterology 1998;45:1069-1074.