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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a major complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The aim of this study was to assess predictors of post-OLT CKD in HIV/HCV-coinfected recipients versus HIV-infected recipients without HCV (HIV/non-HCV recipients). Data from a National Institutes of Health study of 116 OLT recipients (35 HIV/non-HCV recipients and 81 HIV/HCV-coinfected recipients) from 2003 to 2010 (Solid Organ Transplantation in HIV: Multi-Site Study) were analyzed for the pretransplant CKD prevalence [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/minute for ≥3 months] and the incidence of CKD up to 3 years posttransplant. Proportional hazards models were performed to assess predictors of posttransplant CKD. A contemporaneous cohort of HCV-monoinfected transplant recipients from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database was also analyzed. The median age at transplant was 48 years, the median serum creatinine level was 1.1 mg/dL, and the median eGFR was 77 mL/minute. Thirty-four patients were suspected to have pretransplant CKD; 20 of these patients (59%) had posttransplant CKD. Among the 82 patients without pretransplant CKD (26 HIV/non-HCV patients and 56 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients), the incidence of stage 3 CKD 3 years after OLT was 62% (55% of HIV/non-HCV patients and 65% of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients), and the incidence of stage 4/5 CKD was 8% (0% of HIV/non-HCV patients and 12% of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients). In a multivariate analysis, older age [[hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05 per year, P = 0.03] and the CD4 count (HR = 0.90 per 50 cells/μL, P = 0.01) were significant predictors of CKD. HCV coinfection was significantly associated with stage 4/5 CKD (HR = 10.8, P = 0.03) after adjustments for age. The cumulative incidence of stage 4/5 CKD was significantly higher for HIV/HCV-coinfected patients versus HIV/non-HCV transplant recipients and HCV-monoinfected transplant recipients (P = 0.001). In conclusion, CKD occurs frequently in HIV-infected transplant recipients. Predictors of posttransplant CKD include older age and a lower posttransplant CD4 count. HCV coinfection is associated with a higher incidence of stage 4/5 CKD. Liver Transpl 19:619–626, 2013. © 2013 AASLD.