The authors wrote the first draft of the manuscript (James F. Trotter wrote the introduction and the section titled Avoiding or Limiting the Use of Calcineurin Inhibitors in the Maintenance Phase; Monica Grafals wrote the section titled Renal Dysfunction in Liver Transplant Candidates and Recipients, and Angel E. Alsina wrote the section titled Calcineurin Inhibitor Avoidance in the Induction Period). The authors' contributions were merged together by Danita Sutton, Ph.D. (Oxford PharmaGenesis, Inc.), who provided editorial assistance to improve the flow and eliminate any redundancies. Sutton also provided assistance with figure preparation and styling of the manuscript for submission. The final draft was approved by all the authors.
Early use of renal-sparing agents in liver transplantation: A closer look
Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013
© 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Volume 19, Issue 8, pages 826–842, August 2013
How to Cite
Trotter, J. F., Grafals, M. and Alsina, A. E. (2013), Early use of renal-sparing agents in liver transplantation: A closer look. Liver Transpl, 19: 826–842. doi: 10.1002/lt.23672
Funding for editorial assistance from Oxford PharmaGenesis, Inc., was provided by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp. The authors are fully responsible for all content and editorial decisions, and they received no financial support or other form of compensation related to the development of this article. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors, and Novartis Pharmaceuticals had no influence on the contents.
James F. Trotter is part of the speakers' bureau for Novartis and Salix and has advisory arrangements with Novartis. Monica Grafals has nothing to disclose. Angel E. Alsina is part of the speakers' bureau for Bayer and Novartis and has advisory arrangements with Bayer and Onyx.
- Issue published online: 29 JUL 2013
- Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 21 MAY 2013 03:55AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 APR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 12 DEC 2012
Renal dysfunction is a critical issue for liver transplant candidates and recipients. Acute nephrotoxicity and chronic nephrotoxicity, however, are the compromises for the potent immunosuppression provided by calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). To maintain the graft and patient survival afforded by CNIs while minimizing renal dysfunction in liver transplant patients, the reduction, delay, or elimination of CNIs in immunosuppression regimens is being implemented more frequently by clinicians. The void left by standard-dose CNIs is being filled by nonnephrotoxic immunosuppressants such as mycophenolates and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. The results of studies of renal-sparing regimens in liver transplant recipients have been inconsistent, and this may be explained upon a closer examination of several study-related factors, including the study design and the duration of follow-up. Liver Transpl 19:826-842, 2013. © 2013 AASLD.