Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage autoimmune liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Indications for LT for these diseases do not differ substantially from those used for other acute or chronic liver diseases. Despite the good outcomes reported, the recurrence of autoimmune liver disease is relatively common in the allograft. In addition, it has become apparent that autoimmunity and autoimmune liver disease can arise de novo after transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disorders. An awareness of the existence of recurrent autoimmune liver diseases and de novo autoimmune hepatitis after LT has important clinical implications because their management differs from the standard antirejection treatment and is similar to the management of classic autoimmune liver diseases in the native liver. Liver Transpl 19:1065-1077, 2013. © 2013 AASLD.