• 1
    Jones JC, Coombes JS, Macdonald GA. Exercise capacity and muscle strength in patients with cirrhosis. Liver Transpl 2012;18:146151.
  • 2
    Montano-Loza AJ, Meza-Junco J, Prado CM, Lieffers JR, Baracos VE, Bain VG, Sawyer MB. Muscle wasting is associated with mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012;10:166173.
  • 3
    Prentis JM, Manas DM, Trenell MI, Hudson M, Jones DJ, Snowden CP. Submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing predicts 90-day survival after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2012;18:152159.
  • 4
    Carey EJ, Steidley DE, Aqel BA, Byrne TJ, Mekeel KL, Rakela J, et al. Six-minute walk distance predicts mortality in liver transplant candidates. Liver Transpl 2010;16:13731378.
  • 5
    Dharancy S, Lemyze M, Boleslawski E, Neviere R, Declerck N, Canva V, et al. Impact of impaired aerobic capacity on liver transplant candidates. Transplantation 2008;86:10771083.
  • 6
    Huisman EJ, Trip EJ, Siersema PD, van Hoek B, van Erpecum KJ. Protein energy malnutrition predicts complications in liver cirrhosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;23:982989.
  • 7
    Pieber K, Crevenna R, Nuhr MJ, Quittan M, Peck-Radosavljevic M, Fialka-Moser V, Wiesinger GF. Aerobic capacity, muscle strength and health-related quality of life before and after orthotopic liver transplantation: preliminary data of an Austrian transplantation centre. J Rehabil Med 2006;38:322328.
  • 8
    Lemyze M, Dharancy S, Wallaert B. Response to exercise in patients with liver cirrhosis: implications for liver transplantation. Dig Liver Dis 2013;45:362366.
  • 9
    Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DY, Stringer WW, Sietsema K, Sun XG, Whipp BJ. Principles of Exercise Testing and Interpretation: Including Pathophysiology and Clinical Applications. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.
  • 10
    Epstein SK, Freeman RB, Khayat A, Unterborn JN, Pratt DS, Kaplan MM. Aerobic capacity is associated with 100-day outcome after hepatic transplantation. Liver Transpl 2004;10:418424.
  • 11
    Wiesinger GF, Quittan M, Zimmermann K, Nuhr M, Wichlas M, Bodingbauer M, et al. Physical performance and health-related quality of life in men on a liver transplantation waiting list. J Rehabil Med 2001;33:260265.
  • 12
    van der Meer S, Zwerink M, van Brussel M, van der Valk P, Wajon E, van der Palen J. Effect of outpatient exercise training programmes in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2012;19:795803.
  • 13
    Ochmann U, Jörres RA, Nowak D. Long-term efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation: a state-of-the-art review. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2012;32:117126.
  • 14
    Smart N, Steele M. Exercise training in haemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nephrology (Carlton) 2011;16:626632.
  • 15
    Izawa KP, Watanabe S, Oka K, Hiraki K, Morio Y, Kasahara Y, et al. Upper and lower extremity muscle strength levels associated with an exercise capacity of 5 metabolic equivalents in male patients with heart failure. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2012;32:8591.
  • 16
    Izawa KP, Watanabe S, Yokoyama H, Hiraki K, Morio Y, Oka K, et al. Muscle strength in relation to disease severity in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2007;86:893900.
  • 17
    Mroszczyk-McDonald A, Savage PD, Ades PA. Handgrip strength in cardiac rehabilitation: normative values, interaction with physical function, and response to training. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2007;27:298302.
  • 18
    American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians. ATS/ACCP statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:211277.
  • 19
    Todorovic VE, Micklewright A. A pocket guide to clinical nutrition. 3rd ed. Birmingham, United Kingdom: PEN Group; 2004.
  • 20
    Klidjian AM, Archer TJ, Foster KJ, Karran SJ. Detection of dangerous malnutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1982;6:119121.
  • 21
    Kamath PS, Kim WR; for Advanced Liver Disease Study Group. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD). Hepatology 2007;45:797805.
  • 22
    Feng S, Goodrich NP, Bragg-Gresham JL, Dykstra DM, Punch JD, DebRoy MA, et al. Characteristics associated with liver graft failure: the concept of a donor risk index. Am J Transplant 2006;6:783790.
  • 23
    Campillo B, Fouet P, Bonnet JC, Atlan G. Submaximal oxygen consumption in liver cirrhosis. Evidence of severe functional aerobic impairment. J Hepatol 1990;10:163167.
  • 24
    Tandon P, Ney M, Irwin I, Ma MM, Gramlich L, Bain VG, et al. Severe muscle depletion in patients on the liver transplant wait list: its prevalence and independent prognostic value. Liver Transpl 2012;18:12091216.
  • 25
    Wong F, Girgrah N, Graba J, Allidina Y, Liu P, Blendis L. The cardiac response to exercise in cirrhosis. Gut 2001;49:268275.
  • 26
    Epstein SK, Ciubotaru RL, Zilberberg MD, Kaplan LM, Jacoby C, Freeman R, Kaplan MM. Analysis of impaired exercise capacity in patients with cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1998;43:17011707.
  • 27
    Prentis JM, Trenell MI, Jones DJ, Lees T, Clarke M, Snowden CP. Submaximal exercise testing predicts perioperative hospitalization after aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg 2012;56:15641570.
  • 28
    Connolly DA. The anaerobic threshold: over-valued or under-utilized? A novel concept to enhance lipid optimization! Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012;15:430435.
  • 29
    Hopker JG, Jobson SA, Pandit JJ. Controversies in the physiological basis of the ‘anaerobic threshold’ and their implications for clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Anaesthesia 2011;66:111123.
  • 30
    Smith TB, Stonell C, Purkayastha S, Paraskevas P. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a risk assessment method in non cardio-pulmonary surgery: a systematic review. Anaesthesia 2009;64:883893.
  • 31
    Weber KT, Janicki JS. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for evaluation of chronic cardiac failure. Am J Cardiol 1985;55:22A31A.
  • 32
    Ritland S, Petlund CF, Knudsen T, Skrede S. Improvement of physical capacity after long-term training in patients with chronic active hepatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1983;18:10831087.