Racial and socioeconomic disparities exist in liver transplantation (LT) outcomes among adults, but little research exists for pediatric LT populations. We examined racial differences in graft survival and mortality within a retrospective cohort of pediatric and young adult LT recipients at a large children's transplant center in the Southeast between 1998 and 2011. The association between race/ethnicity and rates of graft failure and mortality was examined with Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors as well as individual-level and census tract–level socioeconomic status (SES). Among the 208 LT recipients, 51.0% were white, 34.6% were black, and 14.4% were other race/ethnicity. Graft survival and patient survival were higher for whites versus minorities 1, 3, 5, and 10 years after transplantation. The 10-year graft survival rates were 84% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 76%-91%] for white patients, 60% (95% CI = 46%-74%) for black patients, and 49% (95% CI = 23%-77%) for other race/ethnicity patients. The 10-year patient survival rates were 92% (95% CI = 84%-96%), 65% (95% CI = 52%-79%), and 76% (95% CI = 54%-97%) for the white, black, and other race/ethnicity groups, respectively. In analyses adjusted for demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics, the rates of graft failure [black: hazard ratio (HR) = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.29-5.45; other: HR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.23-7.35] and mortality (black: HR = 4.24, 95% CI = 1.54-11.69; other: HR = 3.09, 95% CI = 0.78-12.19) were higher for minority groups versus whites. In conclusion, at a large pediatric transplant center in the Southeastern United States, racial/ethnic disparities exist in pediatric and young adult LT outcomes that are not fully explained by measured SES and clinical factors. Liver Transpl 20:100–115, 2014. © 2013 AASLD.