The aims of this study were to determine whether the withdrawal of aprotinin (APRO) led to an increased bleeding risk in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A retrospective analysis compared consecutive patients undergoing OLT and treated with aprotinin (APRO group; n = 100) with a group in which aprotinin was not used (no-APRO group; n = 100). Propensity score matching was then performed for each group to identify 2 matched cohorts. Patients were matched by their primary diagnoses and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. This resulted in 2 matched cohorts with 55 patients in each group. None of the patients in the APRO group had significant fibrinolysis. In the no-APRO group, 23.6% of the patients developed fibrinolysis (P < 0.003). Tranexamic acid was used in 61.5% of the patients (n = 8) in the no-APRO group in whom lysis was present, and this resolved the fibrinolysis in all but 1 of these patients. There were no differences in red blood cell, fresh frozen plasma, platelet concentrate, or cryoprecipitate transfusions between the 2 groups. In conclusion, we have shown a significant increase in the prevalence of fibrinolysis during OLT since the withdrawal of APRO. However, there has been no increase in transfusion requirements. Liver Transpl 20:584-590, 2014. © 2014 AASLD.