Arterial conduits that use donor iliac arteries represent a reliable technique for graft revascularization in orthotopic liver transplantation. We reviewed 757 consecutive liver transplantations performed between 1989 and 1995 for acute or chronic liver disease in adults and children. Of these, 218 patients received arterial conduits that used donor iliac arteries. The incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) for conduits was 4.1% (9 of 218 patients) compared with 4% (22 of 539 patients) for direct arterial anastomosis. Patients in the arterial conduit group included 66% (99 of 159) of the children younger than 5 years of age, 75% (67 of 89) of all patients who underwent retransplantation, and, in particular, 25 patients regrafted for HAT. Arterial conduits provide an effective and reliable method of revascularization in patients at higher risk of arterial thrombosis. The actuarial 3-year patency rate for conduits is 95% and the incidence of HAT is similar to that in standard arterial anastomoses.