In determining the right structure for an organization and for it to operate most effectively and efficiently, Feser says we need to develop “a more nuanced and articulated perspective on hierarchies.” The latter can help organizations (especially large ones) to organize the work of many people while implementing the firm's strategy. Using examples from such companies as Toyota, Nestlé and Whole Foods, he says effective and adaptive organizations display three key principles: prioritizing an organization's objectives and scope; creating self-managed performance cells; and building on standards set in such areas as finance, human resources, and information technology.