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Bone Tissue Engineering: State of the Art and Future Trends

Authors

  • António J. Salgado,

    Corresponding author
    1. 3B's Research Group, Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
    2. Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058, Guimarães, Portugal
    • 3B's Research Group, Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal. Fax: +35 1253604492
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  • Olga P. Coutinho,

    1. 3B's Research Group, Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
    2. Department of Biology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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  • Rui L. Reis

    1. 3B's Research Group, Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
    2. Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058, Guimarães, Portugal
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Abstract

Summary: Although several major progresses have been introduced in the field of bone regenerative medicine during the years, current therapies, such as bone grafts, still have many limitations. Moreover, and in spite of the fact that material science technology has resulted in clear improvements in the field of bone substitution medicine, no adequate bone substitute has been developed and hence large bone defects/injuries still represent a major challenge for orthopaedic and reconstructive surgeons. It is in this context that TE has been emerging as a valid approach to the current therapies for bone regeneration/substitution. In contrast to classic biomaterial approach, TE is based on the understanding of tissue formation and regeneration, and aims to induce new functional tissues, rather than just to implant new spare parts. The present review pretends to give an exhaustive overview on all components needed for making bone tissue engineering a successful therapy. It begins by giving the reader a brief background on bone biology, followed by an exhaustive description of all the relevant components on bone TE, going from materials to scaffolds and from cells to tissue engineering strategies, that will lead to “engineered” bone.

original image

Scaffolds processed by using a methodology based on extrusion with blowing agents.

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