Amino acid substitutions at two residues downstream from the active-site histidine of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases are effective for changing the composition and the molecular weight of PHA. In this study, saturation mutagenesis at the position Ala505 was applied to PHA synthase (PhaCAc) from Aeromonas caviae to investigate the effects on the composition and the molecular weight of PHA synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha. The copolymer composition and molecular weight of PHA were varied by association with amino acid substitutions. There was a strong relationship between copolymer composition and PHA synthase activity of the cells. This finding will serve as a rationale for producing tailor-made PHAs.