LbL nano self-assembly coating of A. vinosum with different polyelectrolyte combinations is presented as an example to investigate substrate uptake in bacteria. The effects of surface charge and the formation of a physical barrier provides new insights in the contact mechanisms between the cell surface and insoluble elemental sulfur. Furthermore, uptake of sulfide by encapsulated cells was investigated. Growth experiments of coated cells showed that surface charge did neither affect sulfide uptake nor the contact formation between the cells and solid sulfur. However, increasing layers slowed or inhibited the uptake of sulfide and elemental sulfur. This work demonstrates how defining surface properties of bacteria has potential for microbiological and biotechnological applications.