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Keywords:

  • biomaterial;
  • scaffold;
  • growth factors;
  • angipoietin-1;
  • VEGF;
  • immobilization;
  • vasculogenesis;
  • tissue engineering;
  • cardiac muscle

Abstract

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Functional vascularization is a key requirement for the development and function of most tissues, and most critically cardiac muscle. Rapid and irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes during cardiac infarction directly results from the lack of blood supply. Contractile cardiac grafts, engineered using cardiovascular cells in conjunction with biomaterial scaffolds, are an actively studied method for cardiac repair. In this article, we focus on biomaterial scaffolds designed to mediate the development and maturation of vascular networks, by immobilized growth factors. The interactive effects of multiple vasculogenic factors are discussed in the context of cardiac tissue engineering.