Macromolecular Bioscience

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 6

June 2015

Volume 15, Issue 6

Pages 729–874

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      Cover Picture: Macromol. Biosci. 6/2015 (page 729)

      G. Rajesh Krishnan, Calvin Cheah and Debanjan Sarkar

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201570019

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      Front Cover: On page 747, G. Rajesh Krishnan, C. Cheah, and D. Sarkar show that physicochemical and mechanomorphological character of polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel are modulated by a hybrid crosslinking mechanism where physical crosslinks are induced by hydrophobic selfassembling domains and chemical crosslinks are formed through photopolymerization. These hydrogels enable aggregation and organization of mesenchymal stem cells to control their functional state in 3D microenvironment. Enhanced aggregation of stem cells induced chondrogenesis by promoting deposition of chondrogenic matrix. Thus, cross-linking engineering of PEG hydrogel provides an effective tool to control stem cell fate.

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    1. Masthead: Macromol. Biosci. 6/2015 (page 730)

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201570020

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    1. Contents: Macromol. Biosci. 6/2015 (pages 731–734)

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201570021

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    1. Cellulose Carbonates: A Platform for Promising Biopolymer Derivatives With Multifunctional Capabilities (pages 735–746)

      Thomas Elschner and Thomas Heinze

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400521

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      Cellulose carbonates are versatile platform compounds in order to obtain highly engineered, functional biopolymer derivatives. Low, intermediate, and high degrees of substitution as well as regioselective substitution patterns are accessible.

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    1. Hybrid Cross-Linking Characteristics of Hydrogel Control Stem Cell Fate (pages 747–755)

      G. Rajesh Krishnan, Calvin Cheah and Debanjan Sarkar

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400535

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      Characteristics of polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel can be tuned by combined physical and chemical cross-links to regulate gel morphology. Self-assembling segments induce physical cross-links in photo-cross-linkable PEG gels. This molecular design provides control to organize stem cells in a biomimetic manner, which enhances chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    2. Synthesis of Polysaccharide-Block-Polypeptide Copolymer for Potential Co-Delivery of Drug and Plasmid DNA (pages 756–764)

      Qianqian Li, Wenya Liu, Jian Dai and Chao Zhang

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400454

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      A pH-sensitive, biodegradable, and biocompatible polysaccharide-block-polypeptide copolymer derivative {Ac-Dex-b-PAsp(DET)} is synthetized and self-assembles into cationic nanopaticles for potential co-delivery of plasmid DNA and anticancer drug by usingwater/oil/water (w/o/w) emulsion method. The results suggest that the copolymer has excellent performance and potential for the co-delivery of gene and drugs.

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    1. Heparin-Based Nanocapsules as Potential Drug Delivery Systems (pages 765–776)

      Grit Baier, Svenja Winzen, Claudia Messerschmidt, Daniela Frank, Michael Fichter, Stephan Gehring, Volker Mailänder and Katharina Landfester

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500035

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      Low toxic, narrowly distributed heparin-based nanocapsules are synthesized via a miniemulsion polymerization. Microscopy, zeta potential values, isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, and activated clotting time measurements demonstrate the morphology and biological intactness of the polymeric shell. This is confirmed by an impressive uptake in different cells, monitored by fluorescence activated cell sorting, confocal laser scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.

    2. Galactosylated Poly(Ethyleneglycol)-Lithocholic Acid Selectively Kills Hepatoma Cells, While Sparing Normal Liver Cells (pages 777–787)

      Nomundelger Gankhuyag, Bijay Singh, Sushila Maharjan, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho and Myung-Haing Cho

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400475

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      A potent anti-cancer drug, lithocholic acid (LCA), is converted to poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) conjugates, and further decorated with lactobionic acid (LBA) to produce LCA-PEG-LBA (LPL) to target the hepatocytes. LPL can self-assemble to form nanoparticles, and it has high potency than LCA to kill HepG2 cancer cells, sparing normal LO2 cells. The cell death occurs through apoptosis induced by LPL nanoparticles. Besides, LPL has high specificity to mouse liver cells in vivo.

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    1. Organic Radical Contrast Agents Based on Polyacetylenes Containing 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl (TEMPO): Targeted Magnetic Resonance (MR)/Optical Bimodal Imaging of Folate Receptor Expressing HeLa Tumors in Vitro and in Vivoa (pages 788–798)

      Lixia Huang, Chenggong Yan, Danting Cui, Yichen Yan, Xiang Liu, Xinwei Lu, Xiangliang Tan, Xiaodan Lu, Jun Xu, Yikai Xu and Ruiyuan Liu

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400403

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      Folic acid modified paramagnetic fluorescent bimodal organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs) are prepared using polyacetylenes containing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO). The ORCAs exhibit satisfactory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast efficacy with low cytotoxicity. In vitro and in vivo MRI/optical imaging demonstrate the active targetability of the targeted ORCAs to folate receptor-positive HeLa tumors.

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    1. Optimization of Aqueous SI-ATRP Grafting of Poly(Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Methacrylate) Brushes from Benzyl Chloride Macroinitiator Surfaces (pages 799–811)

      Andrew E. Rodda, Francesca Ercole, David R. Nisbet, John S. Forsythe and Laurence Meagher

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400512

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      Surface initiated ATRP of poly(OEGMA) is performed from macroinitiators bearing the stable benzyl chloride moiety. Despite the structural mismatch between the initiator and monomer and expected poor kinetics, dense polymer brush coatings are grafted from the surface under a set of optimised conditions in aqueous solution. These coatings are highly effective at reducing protein fouling and cell adhesion.

    2. Inclusion Complexes Between Polytetrahydrofuran-b-Amylose Block Copolymers and Polytetrahydrofuran Chains (pages 812–828)

      Rachmawati Rachmawati, Albert J. J. Woortman, Kamlesh Kumar and Katja Loos

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400515

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      Polytetrahydrofuran-block-amylose is able to act as a host molecule which can include guest polytetrahydrofuran chains to result in complexes. The amylose helices in the resulting complexesare in the form of a V amylose with six glucose residues per helical turn. This complexation between the host block copolymer and the guest homopolymer offers a facile route to building supramolecular structures.

    3. Poly(ornithine-co-arginine-co-glycine-co-aspartic Acid): Preparation via NCA Polymerization and its Potential as a Polymeric Tumor-Penetrating Agent (pages 829–838)

      Haiyang Yu, Zhaohui Tang, Dawei Zhang, Wantong Song, Taicheng Duan, Jingkai Gu and Xuesi Chen

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500040

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      A novel random copolypeptide Poly(O,R,G,D) is prepared through the ring-opening polymerization of N-δ-carbobenzoxy-l-ornithine N-carboxyanhydride, l-glycine N-carboxyanhydride and β-benzyl l-aspartate N-carboxyanhydride, following by subsequent deprotection and guanidization. The Poly(O,R,G,D) can be proteolytically cleaved in a treated tumor to expose the cryptic CendR elements that mediates binding to neuropilin-1, inducing vascular and tissue permeabilization.

    4. Synthesis and Properties of Star HPMA Copolymer Nanocarriers Synthesised by RAFT Polymerisation Designed for Selective Anticancer Drug Delivery and Imaging (pages 839–850)

      Petr Chytil, Eva Koziolová, Olga Janoušková, Libor Kostka, Karel Ulbrich and Tomáš Etrych

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400510

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      Well-defined water-soluble high-molecular-weight star polymer drug nanocarriers, based on HPMA copolymers, enabling the pH-sensitive drug release in the tumour tissue are synthesised and their properties are studied. The nanocarriers show a low dispersity and contained different functionalities, which enable the attachment of drugs along the polymer chains and also the one-point attachment for the targeting ligands and/or a labelling moiety.

    5. Mechanical Responses of Cancer Cells on Nanoscaffolds for Adhesion Size Control (pages 851–860)

      Soyeun Park, Lyndon Bastatas, James Matthews and Yong Joong Lee

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400504

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      Mechano-reciprocal interactions play a critical role in cancer progresion. It is found that the stimuli from nanoscaffolds cause changes in mechanical compliance and proliferation depending on the origin of cancer cells and their metastatic potential. A holistic approach utilizing AFM-based biomechanics and nanoscaffolds can reveal mechano-reciprocal interactions crucial for metastatic progression and provide useful information for anti-cancer drug development.

    6. The Effect of Sterilization on Silk Fibroin Biomaterial Properties (pages 861–874)

      Jelena Rnjak-Kovacina, Teresa M. DesRochers, Kelly A. Burke and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500013

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      The final properties of silk fibroin biomaterials are affected by the sterilization protocol. The effect of common sterilization techniques, including autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, and hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, on the physical and biological properties of 3D, porous silk fibroin scaffolds is described.

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