The effects of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) on cathodic protection (CP) of the Q235 steel in the soils have been studied by bacterial analyses, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results showed that the pH value of the soil around the steel gradually increased, the number of SRB and the corrosion rate of the steel decreased, and the CP efficiency increased with the increasing of applied cathodic potential. At the cathodic polarization potential of −1050 mV, SRB still survived in the soils. At the same potential, the CP efficiency in the soil without SRB was higher than that with SRB, and the corrosion rate of the steel in the soil with SRB was much higher than that without SRB. The cathodic current density applied for the steel in the soil with SRB was bigger than that without SRB at the same cathodic potential.