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European steel industry cannot work under future European emissions targets, Commission report confirms

Emission targets set by EU climate policies are unachievable for the European steel industry. This is the conclusion of study recently published by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC). It shows that the industry can reach a maximum of 11 to 19 per cent CO2 emission reductions up to 2030 if it applies current best technologies and innovative solutions that may become available in the future. The 2030 target set by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), however is 37.4 percent. The 2030 milestone in the European Commission's “Roadmap for moving to a low carbon economy in 2050” is 43 to 48 per cent for ETS-sector industries. The JRC report demonstrates that it is impossible for steel companies to meet these emissions targets.

The report by the European Commission's in-house science service is titled Prospective Scenarios on Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions in the EU Iron & Steel Industry. The researchers have developed scenarios that illustrate the influence of different prices for fuel and resources as well as CO2 emissions allowances on the energy efficiency performance of the industry. The report finds that higher prices are “ineffective as major levers of change.”

The maximum abatement values of 11 to 19 per cent the authors have identified refer to the two major steel production routes via electric arc furnaces and blast furnaces. Both values are based on a scenario with a carbon price of 200 euros per tonne. This shows that even under the pressure of an extremely high carbon price the steel industry will not be able to develop and implement technologies for reductions beyond 19 per cent.

The authors conclude that “demand-pull measures supported by the public authorities (through CO2 prices) do not appear to be significant in bringing about changes in the industry”. This is further illustrated by the so-called baseline scenario, for which the study assumes a carbon price of 39 euros per tonne in 2030. In this setting the abatement potential is 11 to 14 per cent and does not differ significantly from the 200 euro per tonne scenario.

The report confirms the reasons behind the European steel industry's deep concerns about climate policies in the European Union: “If an allowance price of 200 euros is not enough to bring about technologies for meeting EU emissions targets, it is certainly more than enough to drive the industry out of the market,” says Gordon Moffat, Director-General of EUROFER, the European Steel Association. “This study, carried out by the Commission's own research body, shows that our claims about emission targets being unachievable for the industry and a serious danger for Europe's industrial base are more than justified. It also highlights how the European steel industry is under constant pressure to reduce emissions while necessary technologies to do so are unavailable.”

Carbon pricing, the JRC study proves, is ineffective for a globally traded basic material like steel, as long as there is no international agreement setting the same framework for the global competitors of the European steel industry. It risks relocation of the industry to regions outside Europe without comparable regulations.

Without a globally competitive steel industry Europe would lose the backbone of its industrial base. Steel is indispensable for industrial value chains and closely connected to key industry sectors. Steel is also the basis for technologies that are urgently needed to achieve the CO2-mitigation targets of the European Union: highly efficient power plants, reliable supplies of renewable energies or lightweight, fuel-efficient cars – all of these rely on innovative steel solutions for construction and production. The CO2 balance of steel is positive in this life-cycle perspective. The amount of emissions the material can save in application is significantly higher than the amount emitted in the production phase.

Click for JRC study: http://publications.

For more information, please contact: EUROFER, The European Steel Association, Avenue de Cortenbergh 172, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium, Bernd Overmaat, Communications Manager, Tel.: +32 2 738 79 32,,



Applied Mathematics and Modeling for Chemical Engineers, Richard G. Rice, Duong D. Do, 2nd edition, 400 pages, 2012, 105 €, Wiley & Sons, Hoboken USA, ISBN: 978-1-1180-2472-0

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Nowadays a lot of processes in the chemical industry are being controlled using computer systems. In order to correctly reflect the situations suitable equations and models are necessary, helping chemical engineers to successfully solve practical problems by applying mathematical principles. Divided into two main parts and an appendix this second edition presents not only classical analysis and differential calculations but also finite element equations. Showing appropriate examples of different practical applications this book helps the reader to understand step by step the approaches.

The first chapter introduces to the formulation of physicochemical problems. Here, cooling, adsorption and other effects are described by using variables, vectors and matrices in order to create a simulation model.

The next chapter provides solution techniques for models yielding ordinary differential equations starting with the basics, classification followed by linear and non-linear equations of different orders.

The third chapter is related to series solution methods and special functions like infinite series and the Frobenius method.

Chapter four describes integral functions, as there are error, gamma and beta function as well as elliptic, exponential and trigonometric integrals.

The calculus of finite differences by staged-process models is described by the next chapter followed by a chapter on approximate solution methods for ordinary differential equations.

Numerical solution methods are provided by touching the aspects of stability, stiffness, inter- and extrapolation, integration and especially the Predictor-Corrector as well as the Runge-Kutta methods.

Various approximate methods for boundary value problems are the content of the next chapter.

By elementary and multivalent functions the reader is introduced to complex variables and Laplace transforms.

The tenth chapter is dedicated to solution techniques for models producing partial differential equations. Topics like combination, separation, Sturm-Liouville conditions and applications of Laplace transforms are addressed.

The last two chapters cover the transform, approximate and numerical solution methods for partial differential equations.

Within the annexes methods for nonlinear algebraic equations are reviewed. The derivation of the Fourier-Mellin inversion theorem and a table of Laplace transforms as well as numerical integration are presented.

At the end of each chapter exercises provide homework in order to get familiar with the content presented. However, the not so mathematically experienced reader would have been grateful to find the solutions either in an appendix or in the time of internet supported publications, on a website.

Finally it can be concluded that this book provides sufficient examples enabling chemical engineers to become familiar with mathematic modeling of technical processes. Interested readers should have at least some knowledge on mathematical principles suitable for solving chemicals questions. Otherwise they would hardly find the appropriate part within this very useful book.

Those who prefer electronic versions should be informed that this work is available as e-book too.


Ralph Bäßler


7th International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions - Environment and Loading (CONSEC13)

September 23–25, 2013 Nanjing (China)

The objective of the CONSEC Conferences is to focus on the issues of concrete infrastructures and private buildings, either subjected to severe environment or severe loading, or anycombination of severe conditions. Experience from the performance of existing concrete structures, and especially under severe environmental conditions, severe accidental loading or extended lifespan, has demonstrated the urgent need for better understanding on the mechanism of deterioration caused by coupling of loading and environmental factors, an improved basis for documentation of obtained construction quality and durability properties during concrete construction, the integration of structural and durability degradation with time, performance-based material requirements, and loading carrying ability and durability scientifically unified service life design.

The previous six CONSEC conferences were held in Sapporo (Japan) in 1995, Tromsø (Norway) in 1998, Vancouver (Canada) in 2001, Seoul (Korea) in 2004, Tours (France) in 2007, and Yucatán (México) in 2010. Each conference has provided a great platform for the exchange of information on material and structural performance under extreme environment and loading, surveys of existing structures, innovative developments in high performance, sustainable and other specialized concretes, durability mechanisms, modeling and life cycle analysis, pioneering repair, retrofit and strengthening techniques using novel materials, and noteworthy design concepts and code activities.

Following these highly successful events, CONSEC 13 will continue to be valuable event in concrete field with useful exchange of advanced academic research, joyful meeting opportunity for old and new friends, and fruitful come out of solutions for concrete service life enhancement.

For more information, please contact: Southeast University Jiangsu Research Institute of Building Science Co. Ltd., The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,, www.


Fatigue of Structures

March 6–8, 2013 Cologne (Germany)

Fatigue cracks and failures due to alternating stresses often appear unexpected and can cause a large amount of damage, human as well as material and financial (image damage and liability). The share of fatigue damages of the total amount of mechanical damages is substantial so managing fatigue related problems in an appropriate way is essential.

A fatigue failure may have different causes, such as the material quality, production process and possible mistakes, structural (detail) design, erroneous use of strength and reliability analysis, underestimation of the load spectrum and abuse of the product.

The fatigue behavior of structures is determined by three aspects: Loads, material and geometry. In this course the significance of all three aspects are discussed.

It is obvious that there are many aspects that affect the resistance of a structure against fatigue. Managing and preventing problems due to fatigue should be considered as a key capability of a structural engineer. The course “Fatigue of Structures” has been designed and developed to meet the needs of structural engineers in designing, analyzing and maintaining structures. It presents the basic fundamentals of high cycle fatigue, as well as practical methods and case studies for meeting the durability of structures.

Course attendees are invited to bring a case from their own practice with them.

For more information, please contact: INVENTUM GmbH, Isabella Sittel-Sanna, Hensstraße 3, D-53173 Bonn, Germany, Tel.: +49 151 46445980, fortbildung@,


International workshop of “Application of Electrochemical Techniques to Organic Coatings” (AETOC)

April 24–27, 2013 Emmetten (Switzerland)

The 8th edition of the international workshop of “Application of Electrochemical Techniques to Organic Coatings” (AETOC) will take place from 24th until 27th of April 2013 in Emmetten, Switzerland. This workshop was created for an intensive exchange and fruitful discussions amongst scientists and engineers being active in the investigation of organic coating using electrochemical techniques.

After initiation on the Schliffkopf in 1999 (a summit in the northern part of the Black Forest in Germany) this workshop is organized as event of the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) every two years and took place in Jurata (Poland), Sintra (Portugal), Villard de Lans (France), Bayona (Spain), Grado (Italy) and Mons (Belgium).

The purpose of this workshop is to provide a platform for the discussion of newest results in coating research obtained with mainly electrochemical methods. It offers a unique occasion to meet all major experts in this field and combines two topics which are usually not found in such a focused workshop format during other conferences on coatings or electrochemistry.

The 8th edition of AETOC is organized by Jörg Vogelsang of Sika Technology AG in close collaboration with the “European Federation of Corrosion” working party “Coatings”.

For more information, please contact: Sika Technology AG, Jörg Vogelsang,,


Calendar of Events

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March 2013  
inline image 6. – 8.3. inline image Cologne (Germany)Fatigue of StructuresINVENTUM GmbH Isabella Sittel-Sanna Bonn Germany
10. – 13.3. inline image Perth (Australia)1st Australasian International Welding, Inspection and NDT Conference (iWIN2013)Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing (AINDT)
13. – 14.3. inline image Shanghai (China)Nuclear Exchange 2013KCI (Knowledge Communication Information)
17. – 21.3. inline image Bochum (Germany)12th Topical Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry & XXII International Symposium on Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics of the Bioelectrochemical SocietyInternational Society of Electrochemistry Lausanne Switzerland
17. – 21.3. inline image Orlando (USA) inline imageCORROSION 2013NACE International
19. – 22.3. inline image São Paulo (Brazil)CeMAT SOUTH AMERICA 2013Hannover Fairs Sulamérica Ltda. Curitiba - PR Brazil
19. – 21.3. inline image Lulea (Sweden)ITS 2013 3rd International Tribology SymposiumDivision of Machine Elements Lulea University of Technology Lulea Sweden
inline image 19. – 22.3. inline image Freiberg (Germany)21st Annual Conference of the German Crystallographic Society (DGK)TU Bergakademie Freiberg Institute of Experimental Physics Freiberg Germany www.dgk-conference
22. – 23.3. inline image Tamilnadu (India)ICAMM 2013Department of Mechanical Engineering Cape Institute of Technology Tamilnadu India
26. – 28.3. inline image Moscow (Russia)12th International Exhibition for Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics - NDT RUSSIA Russian Society for Non-destructive Testing
April 2013  
7. – 10.4. inline image Pretoria (South Africa)13th Topical Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry “Advances in Electrochemical Materials Science and Manufacturing”International Society of Electrochemistry Lausanne Switzerland
8. – 12.4. inline image Hannover (Germany) inline imageHannover MesseDeutsche Messe AG Communications Hannover Germany
16. – 18.4. inline image Karlsruhe (Germany)5th Conference on Fundamentals and Developments of Fuel CellsEuropean Institute for Energy Research (EIFER) Karlsruhe Germany
inline image 17. – 18.4. inline image Vancouver (Canada)2013 International Conference on Civil, Materials and Environmental Sciences (CMES 2013)General Chairs: Min Wu Nanchang University China Wei Lee Asia Pacific Human- Computer Interaction Research Center Hong Kong
inline image 21. – 24.4. inline image Xiamen (China)3rd International Colloids Conference - Colloids & EnergyElsevier Secretariat: Kay Russell
23. – 24.4. inline image Weimar (Germany)Euro BioMat 2013 – European Symposium on Biomaterials and Related AreasDeutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V. – DGM Frankfurt Germany
22. – 24.4. inline image Tel-Aviv (Israel)International Federation for Structural Concrete fib-SymposiumORTRA LTD. Tel-Aviv Israel
24. – 27.4. inline image Emmetten (Switzerland)AETOC 2013 International Workshop “Application of Electrochemical Techniques to Organic Coatings”Sika Technology AG Dr. Jörg A. Vogelsang Zurich Switzerland
inline image 30.4 – 1.5. inline image Boston (USA)Next Generation BatteriesKnowledge Foundation Boston USA
May 2013  
5. – 10.5. inline image Sydney (Australia)5th International Conference on Recrystallization and Grain GrowthConference Secretariat ICMS Australasia Sydney Australia
6. – 8.5. inline image Rotterdam (The Netherlands)IABSE 2013 Spring ConferenceIABSE Dick Stoelhorst Bergambacht Nederland
12. – 16.5. inline image Karlsruhe (Germany)2nd International Conference on Materials for EnergyCongress Office Claudia Martz DECHEMA e.V. Frankfurt am Main Germany
12. – 17.5. inline image Toronto (Canada)223rd ECS MeetingThe Electrochemical Society Pennington, New Jersey USA
14. – 18.5. inline image Milano (Italy)8th World Congress Aluminium Two ThousandInterall Srl
15. – 17.5. inline image Bordeaux (France)The nanoscale and electroanalysis: surface nanostructuration, nanobiological systems, coupled methods, microsystemsElecnano Alexander Kuhn
June 2013  
3. – 7.6. inline image Udine (Italy)Identification Methods for Structural Health Monitoring and Residual Lifecycle AssessmentCISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences Udine Italy
6. – 9.6. inline image Istanbul (Turkey)Surface Treatment EURASIAHannover Messe Bilesim Fuarcilik A.S. Istanbul Turkey
16. – 21.6. inline image Okinawa (Japan)9th International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance SpectroscopyTokyo University of Science, General secretary of EIS 2013 Japan Masayuki Itagaki
18. – 20.6. inline image Washington (USA)Risk Management of Corrodible SystemsNACE International Houston USA CaLae McDermott
30.6. – 3.7. inline image Chateau Liblice (Czech Republic)13th International Conference on Electrified InterfacesJ. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of the ASCR Petr Krtil Prague Czech Republic∼icei/
Juli 2013  
12. – 15.7. inline image Napa Valley, CA (USA)Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Conference 2013Zing Conferences Cambridge England Bruno Pollet
August 2013  
19. – 21.8. inline image Kyoto (Japan)3rd International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technology (SCMT2013)Japan Concrete Institute Kyoto Japan Mr. Inoue
September 2013  
1. – 5.9. inline image Estoril (Portugal)EUROCORR 2013Instituto Superior Técnico Lisboa Portugal
3. – 5.9. inline image Bremen (Germany)LightMAT2013– Aluminium, Magnesium, TitaniumDeutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V. Frankfurt Germany
4. – 6.9. inline image York (UK)12th International Triennial Conference on The Science and Technology of Adhesion and AdhesivesDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London Professor A. J. Kinloch London UK
8. – 13.9. inline image Santiago de Querétaro (Mexico)64th Annual Meeting of the ISEInternational Society of Electrochemistry Lausanne Switzerland
16. – 19.9. inline image Queretaro (Mexico)New Processes and Materials Based on Electrochemical Concepts at the Microscopic LevelInternational Society of Electrochemistry Lausanne Switzerland Carlos Frontana
16. – 19.9. inline image Cracow (Poland)6th Kurt Schwabe Symposium “Surface analysis and material engineering in corrosion science and electrochemical technologies”Dept. of Chemistry & Corrosion of Metals AGH-University of Science & Technology Prof. Jack Banas Cracow Poland∼schwabe
19. – 20.9. inline image Herrsching (Germany)6th utg - Forming Technology Forum 2013Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V. – DGM Frankfurt Germany
inline image 23. – 25.9. inline image 7th International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions - Environment and Loading CONSEC13Southeast University The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
25. – 27.9. inline image Kiel (Germany)Intelligent MaterialsDeutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V. – DGM Frankfurt Germany
inline image 30.9. – 3.10. inline image New Delhi (India)CORCON 2013NACE Gateway India Section
30.9. – 4.10. inline image Kloster Banz (Germany)Conference Intermetallics 2013Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde (DGM) Dr.-Ing. Frank O.R. Fischer Frankfurt am Main Germany
30.9. – 4.10. Udine (Italy) inline imageFailure and Damage Analysis of Advanced MaterialsCISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences Udine Italy
November 2013  
4. – 7.11. inline image Chongqing (China)8th International Conference on High-Performance CeramicsDr. Jianghong Gong Secretary General, CICC-8 Department of Materials Science & Engineering Tsinghua University Beijing P.R. China
12. – 13.11. inline image Chemnitz (Germany)International Symposium on Electrochemical Machining TechnologyFraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU Matthias Hackert-Oschätzchen Chemnitz Germany
September 2014  
8. – 12.9. inline image Pisa (Italy)EUROCORR 2014European Federation of Corrosion c/o DECHEMA e.V. Frankfurt am Main Germany e-mail:
23. – 25.9. inline image Darmstadt (Germany)MSE 2014 - Materials Science and EngineeringDeutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V. – DGM Frankfurt Germany
November 2014  
2. – 6.11. inline image Jeju (Korea)19th International Corrosion CongressThe Corrosion Science Society of Korea
September 2015  
6. – 10.9. inline image Graz (Austria)EUROCORR 2015European Federation of Corrosion c/o DECHEMA e.V. Frankfurt am Main Germany e-mail:
October 2015  
4. – 9.10. inline image Taipei (Taiwan)66th Annual Meeting of the International Society of ElectrochemistryInternational Society of Electrochemistry Bing Joe Hwang