• galvinoxyl;
  • organic radical batteries;
  • polyradicals;
  • redox polymers;
  • 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) polymer
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The synthesis and electrochemical characterization of polymers that bear galvinoxyles in the side chains is described. The monomers are synthesized employing C–C coupling reactions, polymerized with Rh(nbd)BPh4 as a catalyst, and subsequently oxidized. These galvinoxyl-containing polymers represent interesting anode materials for organic radical batteries and employ stable organic radicals, which are bound to polymers; hereby, metals and metal oxides, as active compounds, can be replaced. With the use of ethynylphenyl-galvinoxyles as anode-active material and poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)methacrylate (PTMA) as cathode-active material, metal-free batteries with an aqueous and environment-friendly electrolyte are built. These cells are tested for their charge and discharge capacities.