Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics

Cover image for Vol. 214 Issue 11

Special Issue: Shape-Memory Effect in Polymers

June 13, 2013

Volume 214, Issue 11

Pages 1169–1283

Issue edited by: Andreas Lendlein

  1. Cover Picture

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    6. Essay
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      Macromol. Chem. Phys. 11/2013 (page 1169)

      Tilman Sauter, Karl Kratz and Andreas Lendlein

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201370037

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      Front Cover: Shape-memory polymer foams with identical foam density but variable microstructure show substantial differences in their shape recovery. This effect is observed both on the macroscale (foam) and on the microscale (single pore). Further details can be found in the article by T. Sauter, K. Kratz, and A. Lendlein on page 1184.

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    1. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 11/2013 (page 1288)

      Kyung Min Lee, David H. Wang, Hilmar Koerner, Richard A. Vaia, Loon-Seng Tan and Timothy J. White

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201370040

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      Back Cover: A large increase in the magnitude of the photogenerated stress is observed in a crosslinked azobenzene-functionalized polyimide. Subjecting the material to pre-strain aligns the azobenzene units in the polyimide, which serves to enhance the cooperative motion of the photo chemical mechanism to yield a photogenerated stress of 1.25 MPa. This value is more than two times larger than the stress generated in the “as-prepared” polyimide. Further details can be found in the article by K. M. Lee, D. H. Wang, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, L.-S. Tan,* and T. J. White* on page 1189.

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    1. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 11/2013

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201370038

  4. Contents

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    1. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 11/2013 (pages 1171–1174)

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201370039

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      Shape-Memory Effect in Polymers (pages 1175–1177)

      Andreas Lendlein and Tilman Sauter

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201300098

  6. Talents & Trends

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    1. Bioinspired Microorigami by Self-Folding Polymer Films (pages 1178–1183)

      Leonid Ionov

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201200246

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      Recent advances in the development and application of biomimetic self-folding polymer films, which mimic natural mechanisms of movement and form complex 3D structures, are discussed in this manuscript.

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    1. Pore-Size Distribution Controls Shape-Memory Properties on the Macro- and Microscale of Polymeric Foams (pages 1184–1188)

      Tilman Sauter, Karl Kratz and Andreas Lendlein

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201300062

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      The shape-memory effect of polymer foams is influenced by their morphology and density. Two shape-memory polymer foams are prepared by thermally induced phase separation with identical foam density but different pore-size distributions. While bimodal pore-size distributions induce microscale bending during compression, buckling occurs in foams with a monomodal pore-size distribution, leading to both a reduced and delayed shape recovery.

  8. Full Papers

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    1. Photomechanical Response of Pre-strained Azobenzene-Functionalized Polyimide Materials (pages 1189–1194)

      Kyung Min Lee, David H. Wang, Hilmar Koerner, Richard A. Vaia, Loon-Seng Tan and Timothy J. White

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201200340

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      The photomechanical output of glassy, crosslinked azobenzene-functionalized polyimide is examined both in a cantilever and tensile geometry. The magnitude of photogenerated stress output is doubled by “pre-straining” a glassy, azobenzene-functionalized polyimide. Subjecting the material to thermal processing allows the material to exhibit shape memory behavior.

    2. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Triggered Shape Memory and Drug Release from Biodegradable Polyurethane (pages 1195–1203)

      Jianjun Han, Guoxia Fei, Guo Li and Hesheng Xia

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201200576

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      A shape memory biodegradable polyurethane composite is prepared with polycaprolactone as the switching segment. The composite shows excellent high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) controlled shape recovery and drug release functions and a rapid enzymatic biodegradation rate, which has potential applications in minimally invasive interventional therapy devices.

    3. Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low-Density Shape-Memory Polymer Foams in Water (pages 1204–1214)

      Pooja Singhal, Anthony Boyle, Marilyn L. Brooks, Stephen Infanger, Steve Letts, Ward Small, Duncan J. Maitland and Thomas S. Wilson

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201200342

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      A controlled rate of actuation of ultralow-density shape-memory polymer foams in water is reported. The time of complete shape recovery is controlled from 2 min to >24 h based on material composition. This ability to control the actuation rate may significantly improve the delivery of SMP medical devices under conditions that require exposure to high-humidity environments prior to actuation.

    4. Synthesis and Properties of Poly(p-phenylene ethynylene)s with Oxidation- and Reduction-Sensitive Moieties (pages 1215–1224)

      Michael Schroeter, Marc Behl, Christian Kaiser and Andreas Lendlein

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201300059

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      Poly(p-phenylene ethynylene)s (PPEs) with reactive methoxy-substituted moieties are synthesized by the Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction and are used to generate quinone functionalities in the polymer backbone. The polymers can be reversibly reduced to hydroquinones and oxidized to quinones. Optical properties such as fluorescence are comparable to regular PPEs, whereby fluorescence is quenched in the quinone stage.

    5. Synthesis and Characterization of Shape-Memory Polyurethane–Polybenzoxazine Compounds (pages 1225–1237)

      Numan Erden and Sadhan C. Jana

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201200315

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      Shape-memory polyurethane (SMPU)–polybenzoxazine (PB) compounds form interesting morphology and provide close to 100% increase in recovery stress and close to 100% recovery of shape.

    6. Effect of Crosslinking on Shape-Memory Behavior of Zinc Stearate/Ionomer Compounds (pages 1238–1246)

      Jing Dong and R. A. Weiss

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201200145

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      Shape-memory polymers composed of fatty acid crystals dispersed in an elastomeric ionomer exhibit creep when loaded. The replacement of the ionic network, which provides the permanent crosslinks in the ionomer, with a covalent network eliminate the creep and produce SMPs with fixing efficiency of more than 95% and shape recovery efficiency of ≈100%.

    7. Anisotropic Shape-Memory Elastomeric Composites: Fabrication and Testing (pages 1247–1257)

      Erika D. Rodriguez, Derek C. Weed and Patrick T. Mather

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201300086

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      Anisotropic shape-memory elastomeric composites are prepared by electrospinning a web of oriented fibers, followed by the infiltration, and cure of a silicone matrix. The mechanical properties of the composites are found to be strongly anisotropic in a manner similar to bat wing membranes. Shape-memory testing reveals a dependence of the strain-fixing degree on the orientation direction, and excellent shape recovery in all directions.

    8. Electron Beam Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymers with Tunable Mechanical Properties (pages 1258–1272)

      Keith Hearon, Landon D. Nash, Brent L. Volk, Taylor Ware, James P. Lewicki, Walter E. Voit, Thomas S. Wilson and Duncan J. Maitland

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201200348

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      A thermoset polyurethane shape memory polymer exhibiting novel processing capabilities and tunable material properties is reported. This SMP can be processed into complex geometries as a thermoplastic and crosslinked to desired extents using electron beam irradiation. The neurovascular stent prototype fabricated in this work demonstrates the SMP's novel processing capability.

    9. Simulating the Shape-Memory Behavior of Amorphous Switching Domains of Poly(L-lactide) by Molecular Dynamics (pages 1273–1283)

      Ehsan Ghobadi, Matthias Heuchel, Karl Kratz and Andreas Lendlein

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/macp.201200450

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      The thermally induced shape-memory effect (SME) of polymers can be quantified in cyclic, thermomechanical tensile tests. Here, a method for simulating such a cyclic thermomechanical test is introduced based on molecular-dynamics calculations, which focus on the behavior of the amorphous switching domains. Two subsequent test cycles can be described successfully for the SME of poly(L-lactide).

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