• Ordinal arithmetic;
  • adduction;
  • finite set theory


Ordinal addition and multiplication can be extended in a natural way to all sets. I survey the structure of the sets under these operations. In particular, the natural partial ordering associated with addition of sets is shown to be a tree. This allows us to prove that any set has a unique representation as a sum of additively irreducible sets, and that the non-empty elements of any model of set theory can be partitioned into infinitely many submodels, each isomorphic to the original model. Also any model of set theory has an isomorphic extension in which the empty set of the original model is non-empty. Among other results, the relations between the arithmetical operations and the transitive closure and the adductive hierarchy are elucidated. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)