• Geometric logic;
  • duality;
  • categorical logic;
  • topos theory;
  • topological semantics;
  • MSC (2010) 03G30;
  • 18B25;
  • 18C10;
  • 18C50;
  • 18F20


Using Butz and Moerdijk's topological groupoid representation of a topos with enough points, a ‘syntax-semantics’ duality for geometric theories is constructed. The emphasis is on a logical presentation, starting with a description of the semantic topological groupoid of models and isomorphisms of a theory. It is then shown how to extract a theory from equivariant sheaves on a topological groupoid in such a way that the result is a contravariant adjunction between theories and groupoids, the restriction of which is a duality between theories with enough models and semantic groupoids. Technically a variant of the syntax-semantics duality constructed in 1 for first-order logic, the construction here works for arbitrary geometric theories and uses a slice construction on the side of groupoids—reflecting the use of ‘indexed’ models in the representation theorem—which in several respects simplifies the construction and the characterization of semantic groupoids.